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HAILSTORM INVESTIGATION

DALLAS / FORT WORTH, TX MAY24, 2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

©2012 RICOWI, Inc.


 

HAILSTORM INVESTIGATION REPORT

Dallas / Fort Worth – May 24, 2011

 

Table of Contents

Preface ............................................................................................................................................. ii

The Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc. ............................................................... iii

1.   INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 1

2.   METEOROLOGICALINFORMATION .................................................................................... 1

3.   INVESTIGATION PROTOCOL ................................................................................................ 2

4.   FIELD RESULTS ..................................................................................................................... 3

A.   LOW SLOPE SYSTEMS ................................................................................................... 3

A.1.   BUILT-UPROOFING (BUR) ............................................................................................ 4

A.2.   MODIFIED BITUMEN ...................................................................................................... 4

A.3.   SPRAYEDPOLYURETHANE FOAM (SPF) ..................................................................... 4

A.4.   METAL ............................................................................................................................. 4

A.5.   SINGLE-PLYSHEET MEMBRANES ................................................................................ 4

B.   STEEP SLOPE SYSTEMS ................................................................................................. 4

B.1.   ASPHALTSHINGLES ....................................................................................................... 4

B.2.   TILE .................................................................................................................................. 5

B.3.   CEDAR SHAKES& SHINGLES ....................................................................................... 5

B.4.   METAL .............................................................................................................................. 6

5.   RESULTS .................................................................................................................................. 6

6.   FUTURE RESEARCH ............................................................................................................... 8

7.   REFERENCE ............................................................................................................................ 8

APPENDIX A: Inspection Summary Tables ................................................................................... 10

APPENDIX B: Team Summary Reports and Steep Slope Inspection Reports ................................. 25

APPENDIX C: Team Summary Low Slope Inspection Reports .................................................... 143

APPENDIX D: HailTrax Reports .................................................................................................. 19 9

APPENDIX E: Storm Event Data Reports for Dallas County ........................................................ 211

APPENDIX F: Storm Event Data Reports for Tarrant County ....................................................... 213

APPENDIX G: RICOWI 2011 Hail Investigation Team ................................................................ 216

APPENDIX H: Acknowledgements .............................................................................................. 218

©2012 RICOWI, Inc.                                                                                                                      Page i


 

 

Preface

 

Thisdocument was prepared and published by the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc. (RICOWI). Thefollowing organizations are   Sponsor Members of RICOWI:

 

                             

 

 

                           

 

 

                                              

 

 

 

 

 

This document is disseminated for informational purposes only and all rights reserved by RICOWI. Thisdocument shall not be reproduced in wholeor in part without written permission from RICOWI.

 

 

Inno event shall RICOWI be liable for any damages whatsoever, including special, indirect, consequential orincidental damages or damages for loss of profits, revenue, use or data, whether claimed in contract, tort or otherwise.

 

 

Thisdocument will be posted on RICOWI’s website ( www.ricowi.com )and available for free download. Copies on CD can be ordered by email: jcook@ricowi.com.   A shipping and handling fee will be charged.

 

 

 

 

 

 

AllRights Reserved Publication Date:May 04, 2012


 

 

 

The Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc.

 

Mission

RICOWI is committed to:

§ Encourage and coordinate research to provide a more knowledgeable informationbase of roof issues including wind,hail, energy efficiency and durability effects;

§ Accelerate the establishment of new or improved industry consensus standard practices for weather design andtesting where they are recognized as needed;

§ Improve the understanding of roof weather concepts and issues within the building community in general.

 

Background

TheRoofing Industry Committee on WeatherIssues, Inc. (RICOWI) was established in 1990 as a non-profit organization to identify and address important technical issues related to the cause of wind damage which include:

§ Dynamic testing of roof systems;

§ Importance of sample size for tests;

§ Role of wind tunnels and air retarders;

§ Need for acceptable procedures for ballasted systems;

§ Field data and response team reports;

§ General lack of communication within the roofing industry as to what theproblems are, what is being done andshould be done to alleviate them, andhow effectively information istransferred within the roofingindustry and to others in the buildingcommunity.

 

In1996, RICOWI was incorporated as a nonprofitcorporation devoted to research and education on wind issues. After a review of the need for similar education and research in the areas of hail, energy efficiency and durability effects,the organization's


 

objectiveswere broadened in 1999 to   include other weather topics, and"Wind" in RICOWI's namewas changed to "Weather" to reflect the expanded scope.

 

Meetings

RICOWImeetings are held twice a year, in thespring and fall. The spring   meeting   is usuallyheld in conjunction with the RCI, Inc.’s annualconvention.

 

Themeetings include a technical forum and abusiness session where the direction and businessof RICOWI is discussed. During the technicalsegment, the Sponsor and Affiliate Members havean opportunity to report on the   latest developments in theirorganizations and technical subjectsof common interest. Any concerned orinterested individual can bring their knowledge or concern to another group of experts that can peer review their ideas, suggest tests orprocedures, or confirm that they areheaded in the right direction.

 

Seminars

RICOWISeminars on the proper design,installation and testing procedures for specificroofing materials are held once or twice a year.Fall seminars are usually held at research   testing or educational facilities andinclude a tour. They are of interestto roofing professionals, architects,contractors, engineers, facility managers and those in the insurance industry.


 

©2012 RICOWI, Inc.                                                                                                                     Page iii


 

 

 

 

 

Wind and HailInvestigation Programs RICOWI    has                   implemented               two      strategic investigation programs:

§ Wind Investigation Program (WIP)

§ Hail Investigation Program (HIP)

 

The purpose of these programs is to investigate the field performance of roofing assemblies after major hurricane and hailstormevents and:

§ To factually describe roof assembly performance and modes of damage;

§ To formally report the results for substantiated hurricane/hail events.

 

The data collected provides unbiased detailed information on thewind and hail resistance of low-slopeand steep-slope roofing systems fromcredible investigative teams. We can expect a greater industry understanding of what causes roofs to perform or fail in severe wind and hail events, leading to overallimprovements in roof systemdurability, the reduction of wastegeneration from re-roofing activities, and areduction in insurance losses that will lead to lower overall costs for the public. The reports document roofing systems that fail or survive major weather events and provides educational materials for roofingprofessionals to design wind and hailresistant roofing systems. The data can beused to improve building codes, roof systemsdesign, and educate the industry and the public.


 

ROOFING INDUSTRY COMMITTEE ON WEATHER ISSUES, INC. HAILSTORM INVESTIGATION REPORT

May 24,2011 - Hailstorm, Dallas/Fort Worth, TX

 

ABSTRACT:

 

TheRoofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc. (RICOWI) has completed thesecond Hailstorm InvestigationProgram (HIP). Seven inspection teams examined over one hundred roofing systems during a four-day period to evaluate the effects of a significant hailstorm that passed through portions of theDallas/Fort Worth metropolitan area on May 24, 2011. The purpose of the project was to document theeffects of hail impact on a variety of roofing products, and to describe roof assembly performance and modes ofdamage for substantiated hailstone sizes.

 


1.   INTRODUCTION

 

Afield investigation program has been completedby RICOWI regarding hail effects to roofing from a storm that occurred in the Dallas/Fort Worth area on May 24, 2011.

 

RICOWI wasestablished in 1990 as a non-profitinternational organization comprised of majorroofing associations, members of academia,educational and test facilities, the insuranceindustry, and others involved in the science of roofing.

 

The mission ofthe HIP is:

§ To investigate the field performance of roofing assemblies after major hailstorm events;

§ To factually describe roof assembly performance and modes of damage;

§ To formally report the results   for substantiated hail events.

 

This RICOWI HIPproject was the second industry-wideresearch program conducted to assessfield damage from a major hailstorm in theUnited States. The storm was selected by theRICOWI criteria of having been declared aninsurance catastrophe by Property Claim Service(an insurance services company) and having hailstones larger than 1.5 inches indiameter in a region of five squaremiles or greater in a previouslydefined area (the Dallas/Fort Worthmetropolitan area had been targeted due to itsconcentration    of    Impact    Resistant    steep slope


roofingproducts). Although there are severalimpact-resistance test methods available fromUnderwriters Laboratories (UL), FM Global(FM), and other agencies, the most common testused to simulate hail impact for steep slopeproducts are UL 2218 and FM 4473. In both ofthese tests, roofing products are rated from Class 1, 2, 3, or 4 with impacts designed to simulate the impact energy of free-fallinghailstones of 1.25-, 1.5-, 1.75-, or2.0-inch diameter. The UL testemploys steel balls while the FM test uses iceballs and is designed for rigid roofing products.

 

2.   METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION

 

OnMay 24, 2011 three rounds of thunderstormscontaining large hail and tornadoes   passed through portions of north Texasincluding the Dallas/Fort Worth metropolitan area. Several of the thunderstorms were supercell variety containing very large hail. TheNational Climatic Data Center (NCDC)publication Storm Data listed 32 reports of hail in Tarrant County (nine reports stated hail sizes of two inches diameter or larger) and 10 reports of hail inDallas County (three reports of twoinch diameter or larger). Dallas andTarrant County are the most populouscounties in the Dallas/Fort Worth area, and   most of our inspections were made in these counties. Extremely large hail greater than four inches in diameter was reported in a portion of northern Tarrant County (cities of Avondale and Keller) and a separate location inwestern Dallas County (city ofIrving). The hailstorms   damaged   planesat both the DFW Airport and Love Field (Dallas).


 

 

 

Figure 1. Ventcap buckled by large hail in Irving.

 

Therewere large areas of the two counties wherehailstones from one to two inches in diameterwere reported. A Dallas Morning News articlequoted an insurance industry   spokesman, Mr. Jerry Johns of the Southwestern Insurance Information Service, that thedamage from the hailstorms couldreach several hundred milliondollars 1 . Refer to Appendix A for meteorological information from theNational Climatic Data Center .

 

 

Figure 2. Hailstones saved by homeowner in Irving.

 

Priorto arriving for the field investigation, aHailTrax map from Weather DecisionTechnologies that estimated maximum hailstonediameters from the radar imagery was obtained.This was used to make a preliminary judgment on what areas to focus the inspections. Hailstone sizes larger than two inches   were confirmed       by


 

theinspections in some of the locations shown inthe HailTrax, particularly in Irving and   Dallas. The inspection sites wereplotted onto the HailTrax maps foundin Appendix D

 

 

Figure 3. HailTrax map for May 24, 2011 in Tarrant (left) and Dallas (right)counties. Pink shaded areas hadpossibility of 2.0 inch diameter orlarger hailstones. See Appendix D   for expanded size and inspectionlocations marked.

 

3.   INVESTIGATION PROTOCOL

 

Mostmembers of the inspection teams weretrained in hail damage identification and HIP procedures during a briefing session or had attended prior RICOWI hail training. Hail information was gathered on the sites by examining a variety of materials andsurfaces that would contain impactmarks or dents from hail impact, in addition to any damage found to theroof materials 2, 3 . Property owners also offered some eyewitness accounts of hailstone size and quantity, photographs, and frozenhailstones. One site retained thefoam hail pad provided to volunteersin the area in association withCOCORAHS (Community Collaborative Rain, Hail, and Snow network). COCORAHS has a nearly national network of volunteer observers with rain gauges and hail pads,and RICOWI helped to distributeapproximately 150 hail   pads in the DFW area. However, only afew of the hail pads were struck withlarge hail during this storm event.With the exception of the hail pad,photographs, or frozen hailstones observed, itshould be understood the hailstone sizes listed are best estimates from the information gathered on- site and data offered in thereferenced articles     by


 


Crenshawand Morrison. The maximum hail sizes determinedon-site sometimes differed (larger orsmaller) from those estimated by the HailTraxmap. In these cases, the inspection-based datawould be considered more accurate.

 

Adata form was developed to record pertinentinformation from each site. Data   included location, roof constructiondetails, generic roof materialdescriptions, roof pitch, estimatedmaximum hailstone size at the site, and the type(s) and severity of hailstone impact damage to the roofing product. Impact effects werelisted on a scale of 0-5:

 

1.   No apparent damage.

2.   Surface impactmarks without fractures orpunctures.

3.   Minimal damage(low severity and low quantity).

4.   Moderate amountof fractures, punctures, or spalling.

5.   Moderate/severedenting of metal roofing.

6.   Severe damageresulting in potential leakage.

 

Inspection teamswere designed to consist of threemembers with a balance of manufacturerrepresentatives, trade group representatives,engineers, roof consultants, roofing contractors,and insurance professionals. One team memberwould record the site data on the form, one wouldphotograph and log captions for the photographs,and one would inspect the property and markitems of interest. At times, some inspection teams contained only two members. Some inspection teams were accompanied by roofing contractors or other interested parties who aided inarranging the inspection or inproviding access.

 

The selection ofinspection sites was targetedtowards areas with moderate to large   hail sizes and to include avariety of roof system   types. Sites primarily were obtainedthrough contacts of HIP or RICOWImember organizations, and throughlocal roofing contractors. The peopleoffering their property for inspection were told in advance that roof replacement bids would not be given, nor would assistance be given regarding their insurance claims.


Typicalinspections consisted of a complete visualsurvey of the roof surface. This was followed by randomly selecting sites where the hail hits were counted and the hail size was estimated. On each roof several random test areas wereselected for counting the locationsthat exhibited hailstone impact effects 4 . Other building or surrounding elements were also used to establish the size   of the hail at the specific site being investigated.

 

Theinspections were non-destructive, with no testcuts performed or samples removed unlesscontractors were present and working on the roofat the time of inspection. Following the fieldinvestigation, the information from the inspectionform was input into a central database, and digitalphotographs from each site were consolidated.Appendix A contains summary tables of theinspection locations with their roof type(s),maximum hailstone size, and hail effectsobserved. Inspection team summaries withrepresentative photographs follow in AppendicesB and C after the main report section. Reports as completed by the team members exist for all inspections, however we have not included detailed reports for roofs that were exposed to one inch diameter or smaller hail. Forthe purpose of this report, asphaltshingles are generally listed as“laminated 2-ply”, “laminated 3-ply”, or “3-tab”.

 

4.   FIELD RESULTS

 

A.   LOW SLOPE SYSTEMS

 

Thefocus of the 2011 HIP investigation was theperformance of Impact Resistant (IR) roofingproducts, as compared to those materials that were not rated for impact resistance. Although the testing for impact resistance applies to both low & steep roofed systems, it wasdifficult to determine if the lowslope roofing systems were rated.Limited low slope roofing was inspected, howeveras observed in the Oklahoma HIP, roofmembranes that were solidly supported and orprotected with gravel or stone ballast performedwell


 


A.1. BUILT-UP ROOFING (BUR)

 

BUR roofsappeared to perform well. Five of thesix roofs inspected were impacted by hail of 2.25 inch   or   larger   and   one   roof   was   impacted with

1.75inch hail. All were rated with damage   levels 1 or 2, indicating littleobservable damage and general goodperformance. Observations included scuffing and some gravel displacement by hail impact.

 

A.2. MODIFIED BITUMEN

 

A total of sevenmodified bitumen   membrane roofs were inspected in thestudy. They were impacted by hail from1.75 inch to 5 inch in diameter withfour of the seven being rated at damagelevel 5 indicating they were severelydamaged. One roof exposed to 2 inch hail had no damage.

 

A.3.   SPRAYEDPOLYURETHANE FOAM (SPF)

 

No sprayedpolyurethane foam roofs wereinspected.

 

A.4. METAL

 

Nolow slope metal roofs were inspected; pleaserefer to section B.4 for steep slope metal roofs that were used on both commercial and residential buildings.

 

A.5. SINGLE-PLY SHEET MEMBRANES

 

Three low slopesingle ply membrane roofs wereinspected. One roof was rated to have damagelevel 5 that was impacted by 1.75 inch hail; this roof had multiple temporary repairs over the reported fractures in the membrane so the actual damaged areas could not beobserved. Another roof was rateddamage level 3 (moderate amount offractures or punctures) when exposed to 2.5inch hail. One single-ply roof did not have any visible damage (level 0) when exposedto 2 inch hail.


B.   STEEPSLOPE SYSTEMS

 

B.1. ASPHALT SHINGLES

 

Atotal of 63 asphalt or modified bitumen shingleroofs were inspected during the survey, with 40showing some form of damage   (damage categories 2 or higher) and 28having moderate (3 or higher) orgreater damage reported. Maximum hail sizes on the asphalt shingle roofs inspected ranged from about 0.25 inch to 3.25 inches in diameter. Most of the asphalt shingles (51) inspected were standard   fiberglass   mat three-tab or laminatedasphalt shingles, with 12   roofs having UL 2218 Impact Resistant(IR) rated modified bitumen shingles.It is possible   that some of the shingleslisted as standard could have been IRrated, but if this could not be confirmed itwas not listed as such. Substrates includedprimarily solid OSB or plywood decking where it could be determined.

 

Damagemodes were primarily fracturing orrupturing of the shingle mats or broken shingleedges. Areas with fractured mats generallydisplayed loss of granules sufficient to exposeasphalt, and the recently exposed asphalt was dark in color with limited oxidation. The 16 standard shingle roofs without visible damage (damage categories 0 and 1) had beenstruck with hail sizes from 0.25 inchto 1.75 inches in diameter. Roofswith damage category 2 or higher had been struckwith hailstones 1.0 inch or larger. Of the 25standard asphalt shingle roof rated with damagecategories 3 or higher (moderate or severe), 92% had been struck with hailstones 1.25 inch diameter or larger.

 

Shingleswith an IR rating performed better onaverage than the standard asphalt shingles; the average standard asphalt shingle damage rating was 2.5 with the average IR shingle damage rating of 1.3. Nine of the 12 IR roofs (75%) were ratedas damage category 0, 1, or 2, with hailstone sizes of 0.25 inch to 2.5 inches in diameter on thoseroofs. The two roofs in damage category 3 were struck with hailstones1.75 inches to 2.0 inches in diameter,and the one roof categorized as      severe


 


damagewas struck with hailstones 2.5 inches indiameter.

 

Hail impactdamage was most concentrated on thewindward roof slopes having the most direct hail impacts. Ridge and valley shingles with unsupported areas were noted as being damaged more severely than field shingles. In areas where hail sizes were less than 1.0 inchin   diameter,there were no areas with noted significant orsevere general granule loss, even in areas with 20 or more hail impacts per square foot.

 

Known orestimated ages of the roofs ranged fromless than three years to older than 15 years.Asphalt shingles that appeared (or were known to be) older than 9 years and showed signs of embrittlement or deterioration were more susceptible to damage, and often the damage was more severe. The shingles that were 9 years and newer or had unknown ages but werejudged to be in good or excellentcondition had an average damagerating of 2.1 while the shingles older than9 years had an average damage rating of 4.2.

 

B.2. TILE

 

A total of oneclay tile and four concrete tile roofswere inspected during the survey, with all having some tile fractures from hailimpact. Maximum hail sizes on thetile roofs inspected ranged fromabout 2.0 inches to 4.0 inches in diameter. The profiles included flat, mission, androll style. Substrates when it couldbe determined were solid decking. Please note that the sample size of tile roofs was fairly small, andinspections occurred only in theareas where some of the largest hailfell.

 

Damage mode wasfracturing of the tile field or edgewhen struck with relatively large hailstones.Fracture surfaces from the recent hail displayedunweathered (clean) surfaces, while   older fractures (from foot traffic orother previous damage) observed onthe roofs often had grime or mildewdarkening the surface. A pre-existingcrack pattern on one roof was single fractures near the lower right corner of interlocking tiles. In contrast, hail-caused fracturestypically resulted in


multiplefractures (shattering) from a single largeimpact.

 

Whentiles had impact-caused fractures the hailsizes were greater than 2.0 inches in diameter, and even in these cases, only a small percentage of tiles had been fractured. In some cases, hailstone spatter marks exceeding 2.0inches in diameter were visible onthe tile   surface   without fracturesin the tile. Hail-caused damage was mostconcentrated on the windward roof slopes havingthe most direct hail impacts. Tiles were older than 12 years old in all cases, yet all were consideredto be in good condition. The age of tiles did not appear to have an appreciable effect on   hail impact resistance.Large amounts of smaller hail had noadverse effect on the tiles where   the impact marks were apparent.

 

B.3. CEDAR SHAKES & SHINGLES

 

Atotal of five cedar shake or shingle roofs wereinspected during the survey, with four showingsome form of damage. All roofs had   surface marks from impactinghailstones, but impact- caused splitsor punctures were considered to befunctional damage (detrimental to the service life of the roof) while surfacemarks would be a temporary cosmeticcondition. Maximum hail sizes on thecedar roofs inspected ranged fromabout 1.0 inch to about 2.5 inches in diameter.Two roofs were medium-thickness cedar shake,and the remaining were cedar shingles.

 

Damagemodes were primarily fracturing(splitting) or puncturing of the wood when struckwith relatively large hail. The hail-caused splitswere coincident with, or closely associated with,bright-colored indentations in the wood from hail impact, and the wood fracture surfaces were bright-colored. Bright hail-caused splits could be contrasted with gray-colored interiorsurfaces of splits due to naturalweathering. Often, surface marks fromhail impact and indentations in thewood did not result in splitting of the wood.Punctures occurred in areas of the wood that were thinner than average and where relatively large hail fell, and fresh color in the underlying wood and broken wood pieces confirmed the impact damage. The very large hail at oneinspection   site


 


penetratedthrough to the attic space on a fewoccasions between the spaced lath decking. Hail-caused splitting or puncturing of the woodgenerally was found when hailstones exceeded 1.5 inches diameter, although the sample size of wood roofs was fairly small.

 

Knownor estimated ages of the wood   roofs ranged from less than 3 years old to greater than 15years on two of the roofs. Roofs older than 10years with surface erosion from weatheringdisplayed reduced hail resistance.   Large quantities of smaller hail (0.75inch diameter or less) had no effect other than surface marks that will fade with further weathering.

 

 

B.4. METAL

 

Sixteen roofswere inspected with metal roofing;the types of roofing included raised rib metalpanels, standing-seam metal panels, metal shinglepanels, including stone-coated steel panels. In all cases the roof pitch was 3:12 or steeper, although the painted and Galvalume-coatedraised   rib panels were on commercial buildingsor schools. Other materials includedstanding-seam copper on twolocations, galvanized steel, and standing-seampainted steel. Four roofs with stone-coated steel panels had UL 2218 Class 4 IR rating.

 

Most of the metalinspection sites were in the city ofIrving where some of the largest hail fell, withmaximum hailstone sizes listed as 1.5 to   4.0 inches in diameter. Nine sites werelisted as damage categories 0 or 1, having no visible dents or a small number of shallow depthdents. Some of the stone-coatedpanels on steep slopes (12:12 pitch)sustained hailstones up to 2.5   inches without visible dents orspalling of the granule surfacing.Otherwise, the sites were listed as damagecategory 4 as having moderate to severedenting. No fractures or punctures occurred in the metal panels, with no evidence of   leakage found or reportedbelow the metal roofing at these sites.One site with severely dented metal shingles from

2.5inch hail had some distorted side laps. Raisedrib panels had denting of ribs and pans areas, but no open seams were noted. No fracturing or spalling   of   painted   coatings   was   found   at     hail


impactmarks. One of the   stone-coated steel panels struck with 2.5 inch hail hadspalling of the stone coating at a few locations.

 

 

 

5.   RESULTS

 

TheRICOWI hail investigations obtained aconsiderable amount of beneficial data for allparties interested in the effects of hail impact on roofing products. It was the second large-scale hailstorm investigation by balanced teams representing roof manufacturers,roofing industry trade associations,roof consultants, researchers andengineers, and the insurance industry. TheHIP investigations provided field data related to scientifically estimated hailstone sizes that supported previous laboratory testing and field experience reported in several referenced documents. The jointinspections by the balanced teamsresulted in consensus data   gathered from the inspection sites.

 

The inspection teams were able to investigate a number of roofs that had been impacted by a recent significant hailstorm, factually describe roof performance and modes ofdamage, and correlate the damage withhailstone size(s) and quantities.Data was gathered that can be used inimproving evaluation of   hail-impacted roofing and improving design of roofingsystems to resist hail impact damage.

 

Inreviewing the overall results, the followingfindings emerged:

§ Hail-caused damage, if it occurred, was readily apparent to the trained eyein most cases. Circumstances wherefurther sampling could be appropriateincluded low slope roofing materialthat incorporated laminated plies ofmaterials, such as modified bitumenmembranes, built-up roofing, and somethermoplastic membranes.

§ The effects of hail impact   were distinguishable fromnormal weathering. Impact-causedfractures in materials hadappearances that were distinct from crackingor other indications of long-term weathering.Impact generally resulted in circular and


 


starburst-shaped fractures, and the fracture surfaces had limited oxidation, shrinkage, or grime accumulation, and there was   oftendirect surface evidence of the hail impact.Examples included asphaltic materials that appeared dark black-colored with coincident indentation or fracturing, freshsplits in cedar appeared brightorange-colored with associated impactdent, and clean fracture surfaceswith multiple fractures on concreteand clay tiles.

§ Hailstone size (and resultant impact energy) was more critical than hailstonequantity in determining if the roofingwas   damaged.Areas with the large quantities of hail did not sustain roofing damage if the maximumhailstone size at that site did not exceed thatnecessary threshold of damage for thatmaterial. Almost no damage was found inareas where the maximum hailstone size wasless than 1.0 inch in diameter, with theexception of badly deteriorated andunsupported material. When maximumhailstone size was between 1.0 and 2.0 inchesin diameter, the level of damage ranged fromnone to considerable depending on material,age/condition, roof slope, and supportconditions. When maximum hailstone sizewas greater than 2.0 inches in diameter, mostroofing material sustained damage or denting of metal.

§   The IR rated asphalt shingle products performed better than the standard asphalt shingles. The average damagecategory rating for standard asphaltshingles was 2.5 with IR asphaltshingles was 1.3. This indicated the IRshingles were more likely to have no apparentphysical damage or damage with low quantityor low severity.

§   Standard asphalt shingles generally sustained moderate or severe damage when hailstone sizes were 1.25 inches indiameter or larger. The IR ratedshingles generally performed totheir Class 3 or 4 ratings with only one roofhaving moderate damage when struck withhailstones less than 2.0 inches in diameter(1.75 inches in that case).

§   The teams observed that the threshold for roof damage from hailstone impact to most materials was between 1.25 and 2.0 inches,


whichcorrelates with the size ranges used inmost standard impact resistance tests used tosimulate the effects of hail impact, includingUL 2218, FM 4473, and FM 4470 (often usedfor low-slope roofing products). This fieldinvestigation suggests this is an appropriaterange as roofing material performance variedwith hailstone impacts of this size range. Noattempts were made to compare various testmethods. An exception to   damage occurring by 2.0 inch diameter hail wasmetal roofing panels that wouldsustain denting, but retainwater-shedding integrity even up to 2.5 inchdiameter hail in most cases.

§   Materials that were unsupported or over easily compressible substrates hadgreater damage than those over moresolid substrate. This wasdemonstrated where certain high profileasphalt shingle ridge units that hadunsupported regions, in unsupported valleyareas for asphalt shingles, and low sloperoofing unsupported transition areas at baseflashings and membrane that was installedover compressible insulation boards.

§   Some materials displayed reduced hail impact resistance, particularly those over10   yearsold, with respect to age and deterioration.Categories included asphaltic products(including modified bitumens), and cedarshingles and shakes.

§   Hail effects on metal roof systems were seen as largely cosmetic, rather than functional. Indentations occurred withlarger hailstones, but paintedcoatings had not been visiblycompromised by the denting. Most of themetal roof systems inspected had greater thanmaximum hailstone size of 2.5 inches indiameter, and no leakage was observed orreported even with the moderate to severedenting. With the extremely large hail therewere a few instances of distorted seams orspalled granule surfacing, but even this wasrare. Metal roofing products with Class 4rating performed as designed with   no fractures or open seams found with2.0 inch diameter or smaller hail.


 

 

6.   FUTURE RESEARCH

 

Althoughmany hail-impacted roofs wereinspected and significant data was gathered, the need remains for additional HIP investigations.

 

Otheruseful information or different methodologiescould include:

§ Quicker mobilization would allow for inspection of some of the most severely damaged roofs.

§ Collection of samples would allow additional verification of failure modes.

§ Investigating a greater variety and number of roofs would provide additionalverification of performance.

§ Cooperation with the insurance   industry would permit ananalysis of claim payments vs.observed damage, and provide a basis forrecommendations to reduce insurance losses.

§ A procedure of monitoring service life and future repairs by owners of inspected roofs would provide data on the long-termeffects of hail impact on roofing.

 

 

7.   REFERENCES

 

1. Nielsen, Jon and Benning, Tom. Man found dead in Oak Lawn after night of storms in Dallas- Fort Worth , Dallas MorningNews website dallasnews.com, postedMay 25, 2011.

 

2..Morrison, Scott J., Dents in Metal RoofAppurtenances Caused by Ice Ball Impacts ,Proceedings of the 12th International Roofing and Waterproofing Conference, 2002, Orlando,Florida.

 

3.   Crenshaw, Vickie;Koontz, Jim. Hail: Sizing It Up!, WesternRoofing, May/June 2002.

 

4.   Herzog, R. F.,Marshall, T. P., Protocol ForAssessment of Hail-Damaged Roofing ,Proceedings of the North   American Conference on Roofing Technology, 1999,Toronto, Canada.

 

Publishedby RICOWI, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Publication Date May 01, 2012


 

 

 

 

 

RICOWI Hailstorm Investigation Report Dallas/FortWorth, TX – May 24, 2011

 

 

List of Appendices

 

A.   InspectionSummary Tables

B.   Team Summary Reports and Steep SlopeInspection Reports

C.   Team Low Slope Inspection Reports

D.   HailTrax Reports

Map - Courtesy of Weather DecisionTechnologies, Inc.

E.   Storm Event Data Reports for Dallas County

Courtesy of the National Climatic Data Center

F.   Storm Event Data Reports for Tarrant County

G.   RICOWIHail Investigation Team

H.   Acknowledgements


 

 

Summary of Inspection Sites

 

 

Inspection #

Maximum Hail Size

Damage Rating

Type of Roof

City

1.01

1.0

0

Laminated 2 ply

Mesquite

1.02

1.0

1

Standard 3 tab

Mesquite

1.03

1.25

0

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Rowlett

1.04

0.75

1

Standard 3 tab

Rowlett

1.05

1.5

3

Laminated 2 ply

Coppell

1.06

1.5

3

Laminated 2 ply

Coppell

1.07

1.5

5

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

1.08

1.25

2

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

1.09

1.0

1

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

1.10

0.75

2

Laminated 2 ply

Coppell

1.11

2.5

2

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

1.12

1.5

3

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

1.13

1.5

2

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

1.14

1.25

2

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

1.15

1.5

4

Metal-Raised Rib Panels

Irving

1.16

4.0

4

Metal-Raised Rib Panels

Irving

1.17

2.0

0

Modified Bitumen

Irving

1.18

2.0

3

Modified Bitumen

Irving

1.19

5.0

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

1.20

3.0

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

1.21

1.5

5

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

1.22

2.0

5

Cedar Shingle

Irving

1.23

2.5

4

Metal Shingle

Irving

1.24

1.5

0

Metal-Raised Rib Panels

Irving

1.25

2.0

2

Concrete Tile

Irving

1.26

2.0

0

Single Ply

Irving

2.01

0.5

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

2.02

0.5

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

2.03

0.25

0

Standard 3 tab

Dallas

2.04

1.25

2

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

2.05

1.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Summary of Inspection Sites

 

 

Inspection #

Maximum Hail Size

Damage Rating

Type of Roof

City

2.06

2.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

2.07

1.5

3

Standard 3 tab

Dallas

2.08

0.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Richardson

2.09

1.5

2

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

2.10

0.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

2.11

Not Inspected

 

 

2.12

1.0

2

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

2.13

1.5

0

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Southlake

2.14

1.5

0

Metal Shingle

Irving

2.15

2.5

0

Metal Shingle

Irving

2.16

2.5

0

Metal Shingle

Irving

2.17

0.25

0

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Arlington

2.18

0.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Keller

2.19

3.0

5

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

3.01

1.0

1

Metal-Standing Seam

Dallas

3.02

1.5

5

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

3.03

1.5

5

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

3.04

1.5

5

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

3.05

1.0

0

Metal-Standing Seam

Coppell

3.06

1.0

2

Synthetic Slate

Fort Worth

3.07

1.25

2

Impact Resistant 3 ply

Euless

3.08

2.25

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

3.08b

2.25

2

Built Up Roof

Irving

3.09

4.0

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

3.09b

4.0

4

Metal-Standing Seam

Irving

3.10

1.5

2

Built Up Roof

Irving

3.11

2.25

3

Concrete Tile

Irving

3.12

2.5

3

Single Ply

Irving

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

Summary of Inspection Sites

 

 

Inspection #

Maximum Hail Size

Damage Rating

Type of Roof

City

3.12b

2.5

4

Concrete Tile

Irving

4.01

1.875

2

Modified Bitumen

Dallas

4.02

2.25

1

Built Up Roof

Irving

4.03

2.25

2

Built Up Roof

Irving

4.04

1.25

1

Impact Resistant 3 ply

Dallas

4.05

2.25

3

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

4.06

2.5

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

4.07

3.0

5

Built Up Roof

Irving

4.08

2.25

2

Built Up Roof

Irving

4.09

3.5

2

Built Up Roof

Waxahachie

4.10

3.5

2

Built Up Roof

Waxahachie

4.11

4.0

2

Clay Tile

Waxahachie

5.01

1.0

0

Impact Resistant 3 ply

Dallas

5.02

1.0

0

Standard 3 tab

Dallas

5.03

2.0

5

Standard 3 tab

Irving

5.04

Not Inspected

 

 

5.05

1.25

2

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

5.06

3.25

5

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

5.07

2.5

3

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

5.08

2.5

2

Impact Resistant 3 tab

Irving

5.09

2.5

5

Standard 3 tab

Irving

5.10

2.25

3

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

5.11

1.25

3

Laminated 2 ply

Corinth

5.12

2.5

5

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Oak Point

5.13

2.5

0

Metal Shingle

Irving

5.14

2.5

1

Metal Shingle

Irving

5.15

2.5

4

Metal Shingle

Irving

5.16

2.0

5

Concrete Tile

Irving

5.17

2.25

5

Cedar Shake

Irving


 

 

 

 

Summary of Inspection Sites

 

 

Inspection #

Maximum Hail Size

Damage Rating

Type of Roof

City

5.18

2.5

3

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

6.01

2.0

5

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

6.02

1.0

3

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

6.03

1.0

3

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

6.04

0.25

0

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Irving

6.05

2.0

3

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Irving

6.06

0.25

0

Metal Shingle

Irving

6.07

2.0

0

Synthetic Slate

Irving

6.08

1.75

3

Impact Resistant 3 tab

Farmers Branch

6.09

1.25

3

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

6.10

0.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Colleyville

6.11

1.5

0

Laminated 2 ply

Colleyville

6.12

1.5

2

Laminated 2 ply

Keller

6.13

1.75

2

Laminated 2 ply

Fort Worth

6.14

2.5

1

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

6.15

2.5

4

Metal-Standing Seam

Irving

6.15

2.5

0

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

6.16

2.5

0

Impact Resistant 3 ply

Irving

7.01

3.25

4

Metal-Standing Seam

Prosper

7.02

1.0

2

Cedar Shingle

Farmers Branch

7.03

1.75

5

Single Ply

Desoto

7.04

1.0

1

Cedar Shingle

Arlington

7.05

2.0

5

Laminated 2 ply

North Richard Hills

7.06

2.5

5

Cedar Shake

Irving


 

 

 

 

Inspection Summary by Roof Type

 

 

Inspection #

Maximum Hail Size

Damage Rating

Type of Roof

City

 

4.09

 

3.5

 

2

 

Built Up Roof

 

Waxahachie

4.10

3.5

2

Built Up Roof

Waxahachie

4.07

3.0

5

Built Up Roof

Irving

3.08b

2.25

2

Built Up Roof

Irving

4.02

2.25

1

Built Up Roof

Irving

4.03

2.25

2

Built Up Roof

Irving

4.08

2.25

2

Built Up Roof

Irving

3.10

1.5

2

Built Up Roof

Irving

7.06

2.5

5

Cedar Shake

Irving

5.17

2.25

5

Cedar Shake

Irving

1.22

2.0

5

Cedar Shingle

Irving

7.02

1.0

2

Cedar Shingle

Farmers Branch

7.04

1.0

1

Cedar Shingle

Arlington

1.25

2.0

2

Concrete Tile

Irving

3.11

2.25

3

Concrete Tile

Irving

3.12b

2.5

4

Concrete Tile

Irving

5.16

2.0

5

Concrete Tile

Irving

4.11

4.0

2

Clay Tile

Waxahachie

5.12

2.5

5

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Oak Point

6.05

2.0

3

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Irving

2.13

1.5

0

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Southlake

1.03

1.25

0

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Rowlett

2.17

0.25

0

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Arlington

6.04

0.25

0

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Irving


 

 

 

 

 

Inspection Summary by Roof Type

 

 

Inspection #

Maximum Hail Size

Damage Rating

Type of Roof

City

6.16

2.5

0

Impact Resistant 3 ply

Irving

3.07

1.25

2

Impact Resistant 3 ply

Euless

4.04

1.25

1

Impact Resistant 3 ply

Dallas

5.01

1.0

0

Impact Resistant 3 ply

Dallas

5.08

2.5

2

Impact Resistant 3 tab

Irving

6.08

1.75

3

Impact Resistant 3 tab

Farmers Branch

5.06

3.25

5

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

2.19

3.0

5

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

1.11

2.5

2

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

5.07

2.5

3

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

5.18

2.5

3

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

6.14

2.5

1

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

6.15

2.5

0

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

2.06

2.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

4.05

2.25

3

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

5.10

2.25

3

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

6.01

2.0

5

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

7.05

2.0

5

Laminated 2 ply

North Richard Hills

6.13

1.75

2

Laminated 2 ply

Fort Worth

1.05

1.5

3

Laminated 2 ply

Coppell

1.06

1.5

3

Laminated 2 ply

Coppell

1.21

1.5

5

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

3.02

1.5

5

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

3.03

1.5

5

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

3.04

1.5

5

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

6.11

1.5

0

Laminated 2 ply

Colleyville

6.12

1.5

2

Laminated 2 ply

Keller

1.08

1.25

2

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

2.04

1.25

2

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

2.05

1.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

5.05

1.25

2

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

5.11

1.25

3

Laminated 2 ply

Corinth


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inspection Summary by Roof Type

 

 

Inspection #

Maximum Hail Size

Damage Rating

Type of Roof

City

6.09

1.25

3

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

1.01

1.0

0

Laminated 2 ply

Mesquite

1.09

1.0

1

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

2.12

1.0

2

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

6.02

1.0

3

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

6.03

1.0

3

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

1.10

0.75

2

Laminated 2 ply

Coppell

2.01

0.5

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

2.02

0.5

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

2.08

0.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Richardson

2.10

0.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

2.18

0.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Keller

6.10

0.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Colleyville

1.16

4.0

4

Metal-Raised Rib Panel

Irving

3.09b

4.0

4

Metal-Standing Seam

Irving

7.01

3.25

4

Metal Standing Seam

Prosper

6.15

2.5

4

Metal-Standing Seam

Irving

1.23

2.5

4

Metal Shingle

Irving

2.16

2.5

0

Metal Shingle

Irving

5.13

2.5

0

Metal Shingle

Irving

5.14

2.5

1

Metal Shingle

Irving

5.15

2.5

4

Metal Shingle

Irving

2.15

2.5

0

Metal Shingle

Irving

1.15

1.5

4

Metal-Raised Rib Panels

Irving

2.14

1.5

0

Metal Shingle

Irving

1.24

1.5

0

Metal-Raised Rib Panels

Irving

3.01

1.0

1

Metal Standing Seam

Dallas

3.05

1.0

0

Metal Standing Seam

Coppell

6.06

0.25

0

Metal Shingle

Irving


 

 

 

 

Inspection Summary by Roof Type

 

 

Inspection #

Maximum Hail Size

Damage Rating

Type of Roof

City

1.19

5.0

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

3.09

4.0

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

1.20

3.0

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

4.06

2.5

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

3.08

2.25

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

1.17

2.0

0

Modified Bitumen

Irving

1.18

2.0

3

Modified Bitumen

Irving

4.01

1.875

2

Modified Bitumen

Dallas

3.12

2.5

3

Single Ply

Irving

1.26

2.0

0

Single Ply

Irving

7.03

1.75

5

Single Ply

Desoto

5.09

2.5

5

Standard 3 tab

Irving

5.03

2.0

5

Standard 3 tab

Irving

1.07

1.5

5

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

1.12

1.5

3

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

1.13

1.5

2

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

2.07

1.5

3

Standard 3 tab

Dallas

2.09

1.5

2

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

1.14

1.25

2

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

1.02

1.0

1

Standard 3 tab

Mesquite

5.02

1.0

0

Standard 3 tab

Dallas

1.04

0.75

1

Standard 3 tab

Rowlett

2.03

0.25

0

Standard 3 tab

Dallas

6.07

2.0

0

Synthetic Slate

Irving

3.06

1.0

2

Synthetic Slate

Fort Worth

2.11

Not Inspected

 

 

5.04

Not Inspected

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Inspection Summary by Maximum Hail Size

 

 

Inspection #

Maximum Hail Size

Damage Rating

Type of Roof

City

1.19

5.0

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

1.16

4.0

4

Standing Seam Metal

Irving

3.09

4.0

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

3.09b

4.0

4

Metal-Standing Seam

Irving

4.11

4.0

2

Clay Tile

Waxahachie

4.09

3.5

2

Built Up Roof

Waxahachie

4.10

3.5

2

Built Up Roof

Waxahachie

5.06

3.25

5

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

7.01

3.25

4

Metal-Standing Seam

Prosper

1.20

3.0

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

2.19

3.0

5

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

4.07

3.0

5

Built Up Roof

Irving

1.11

2.5

2

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

1.23

2.5

4

Metal Shingle

Irving

2.15

2.5

0

Metal Shingle

Irving

2.16

2.5

0

Metal Shingle

Irving

3.12

2.5

3

Single Ply

Irving

3.12b

2.5

4

Concrete Tile

Irving

4.06

2.5

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

5.07

2.5

3

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

5.08

2.5

2

Impact Resistant 3 tab

Irving

5.09

2.5

5

Standard 3 tab

Irving

5.12

2.5

5

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Oak Point

5.13

2.5

0

Metal Shingle

Irving

5.14

2.5

1

Metal Shingle

Irving

5.15

2.5

4

Metal Shingle

Irving

5.15

2.5

4

Metal Shingle

Irving

5.18

2.5

3

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

6.14

2.5

1

Laminated 2 ply

Irving


 

 

 

 

 

 

Inspection Summary by Maximum Hail Size

 

 

Inspection #

Maximum Hail Size

Damage Rating

Type of Roof

City

6.15

2.5

4

Metal-Standing Seam

Irving

6.15

2.5

0

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

6.16

2.5

0

Impact Resistant 3 ply

Irving

7.06

2.5

5

Cedar Shake

Irving

2.06

2.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

3.08

2.25

5

Modified Bitumen

Irving

3.08b

2.25

2

Built Up Roof

Irving

3.11

2.25

3

Concrete Tile

Irving

4.02

2.25

1

Built Up Roof

Irving

4.03

2.25

2

Built Up Roof

Irving

4.05

2.25

3

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

4.08

2.25

2

Built Up Roof

Irving

5.10

2.25

3

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

5.17

2.25

5

Cedar Shake

Irving

1.17

2.0

0

Modified Bitumen

Irving

1.18

2.0

3

Modified Bitumen

Irving

1.26

2.0

0

Single Ply

Irving

5.03

2.0

5

Standard 3 tab

Irving

5.16

2.0

5

Concrete Tile

Irving

6.01

2.0

5

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

1.22

2.0

5

Cedar Shingle

Irving

6.05

2.0

3

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Irving

6.07

2.0

0

Synthetic Slate

Irving

7.05

2.0

5

Laminated 2 ply

North Richard Hills

1.25

2.0

2

Concrete Tile

Irving

4.01

1.875

2

Modified Bitumen

Dallas

6.08

1.75

3

Impact Resistant 3 tab

Farmers Branch

6.13

1.75

2

Laminated 2 ply

Fort Worth


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inspection Summary by Maximum Hail Size

 

 

Inspection #

Maximum Hail Size

Damage Rating

Type of Roof

City

7.03

1.75

5

Single Ply

Desoto

1.05

1.5

3

Laminated 2 ply

Coppell

1.06

1.5

3

Laminated 2 ply

Coppell

1.07

1.5

5

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

1.12

1.5

3

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

1.13

1.5

2

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

1.15

1.5

4

Metal-Raised Rib Panels

Irving

1.21

1.5

5

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

1.24

1.5

0

Metal-Raised Rib Panels

Irving

2.07

1.5

3

Standard 3 tab

Dallas

2.09

1.5

2

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

2.13

1.5

0

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Southlake

2.14

1.5

0

Metal Shingle

Irving

3.02

1.5

5

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

3.03

1.5

5

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

3.04

1.5

5

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

3.10

1.5

2

Built Up Roof

Irving

6.11

1.5

0

Laminated 2 ply

Colleyville

6.12

1.5

2

Laminated 2 ply

Keller

1.03

1.25

0

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Rowlett

1.08

1.25

2

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

1.14

1.25

2

Standard 3 tab

Coppell

2.04

1.25

2

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

2.05

1.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

3.07

1.25

2

Impact Resistant 3 ply

Euless

4.04

1.25

1

Impact Resistant 3 ply

Dallas

5.05

1.25

2

Laminated 2 ply

Irving


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inspection Summary by Maximum Hail Size

 

 

Inspection #

Maximum Hail Size

Damage Rating

Type of Roof

City

5.11

1.25

3

Laminated 2 ply

Corinth

6.09

1.25

3

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

1.01

1.0

0

Laminated 2 ply

Mesquite

1.02

1.0

1

Standard 3 tab

Mesquite

1.09

1.0

1

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

2.12

1.0

2

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

3.01

1.0

1

Metal-Standing Seam

Dallas

3.05

1.0

0

Metal-Standing Seam

Coppell

3.06

1.0

2

Synthetic Slate

Fort Worth

5.01

1.0

0

Impact Resistant 3 ply

Dallas

5.02

1.0

0

Standard 3 tab

Dallas

6.02

1.0

3

Laminated 2 ply

Irving

6.03

1.0

3

Laminated 2 ply

Carrollton

7.02

1.0

2

Cedar Shingle

Farmers Branch

7.04

1.0

1

Cedar Shingle

Arlington

1.04

0.75

1

Standard 3 tab

Rowlett

1.10

0.75

2

Laminated 2 ply

Coppell

2.01

0.5

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

2.02

0.5

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

2.03

0.25

0

Standard 3 tab

Dallas

2.08

0.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Richardson

2.10

0.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Dallas

2.17

0.25

0

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Arlington

2.18

0.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Keller

6.04

0.25

0

Impact Resistant 2 ply

Irving

6.06

0.25

0

Metal Shingle

Irving

6.10

0.25

0

Laminated 2 ply

Colleyville

2.11

Not Inspected

 

 

5.04

Not Inspected

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


AsphaltShingles / Not Impact Rated


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


ImpactRated Asphalt Shingles


 

 

 

 


Low Slope Charts


 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix B:

 

 

 

 

 

Team Summary Reportsand Steep Slope Inspection Reports

 

 

The individual site selections in boththe steep and low slope section of thisdocument do not include all of the investigations conducted by the RICOWI HailInvestigation Teams during this period. Theincluded sites were selected forinclusion based on the following characteristics: relatively large hail; significant damage; or interesting information.


 

 

Team 01Summary Report

 

Overview

Team 1 observed 26 roof sites primarily to the north, northeast and southeast of DFW Airport. In all, the team lookedat five 3-tab shingle roofs, ten laminate styleshingle roofs, four SBS BUR, one TPO, three architectural raised rib metal panels, one metal shingle, one woodshingle and one concrete tile.

 

The first two daysfocused on residential asphalt shingles: Five of which were 3- tab with 4 of 5 categorized as having major damage. Nine were laminate architectural style, with 3 of 9categorized with moderate or severe damage and 3 with no shingle damage. Hail size was estimated at ~ 1.5 to2-inch   on the damaged category roofs.

 

The last day and ahalf the team observed 12 roof locations, a combination of low and steep sloped roofs, just north ofDFW in the general area around Irving, Texas.Local personnel from two different locations reported 2 separate storm cells with hail and the 2hailstorms were reported coming from different directions, which was visually evident on roofs. Oneasphalt shingle location, 1 wood shingle steep   wall, 1 metal shingle and 3 SBS BUR roofs, (some with multiple sections with major damage), were categorized asmoderate or severe damage. One roof also hadsignificant skylight damage.

 

Three architectural raised rib metal panel roofs were observed with 2 of the 3 categorized as moderate to severe denting. One concrete tile roof appeared to have some minor corner sidelap breakage and a mechanically attachedTPO had no observed membrane damage in a location that reportedly had car windows shattered. Hail size wasestimated from ~ 2 inches to 3 to 5-inches on   the damaged category roofs.

 

 

Team Members

 

John Goveia, Photographer 06/14, 15, 16, Report Summary Writer Phil Dregger, Photographer 06/13, 14

Robert White, Data Collector & Field Data Report Writer Rusty Beck, Data Collector &Field Data Report Writer


 

 

 

Team 01 Data Reportsand Photographs Steep Slope

Steep SlopeInspection Site: 1.03

 

Inspection Number

1.03

Zip

75088

Site Latitude

32.890567

Site Longitude

-96.578058

Area Size (Square feet)

2,200

Approximate Age (Years)

0-3

General Condition

Excellent

Slope

7-8:12

Roof Type

Impact resistant 2-ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

6-10

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

0-15

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

No

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

0

Types of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 1.03 Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.03-1.Overview of south facing slope.

1.03-2. Dents in top of metal vent cover.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.03-3. Dents in top of metal vent cover after chalk-rub.

1.03-4. Hail spatter mark on horizontal glass pane of skylight.


 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site: 1.05

 

Inspection Number

1.05

Zip

75019

Site Latitude

32.958587

Site Longitude

-97.003023

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

 

General Condition

Excellent

Slope

3-4:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

0-15

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

 

Overall Damage Rating

3

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture, Puncture

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
SteepSlope Site 1.05 Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.05-1. Multiple hail marks shown.

1.05-2. Large hail mark on shingle

1.05-3. Large hail mark.

1.05-4. Large hail mark on shingle.


 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site: 1.06

 

Inspection Number

1.06

Zip

75019

Site Latitude

32.965583

Site Longitude

-96.974315

Area Size (Square feet)

3,300

Approximate Age (Years)

3-6

General Condition

Good

Slope

7-8:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

11-15

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

16-30

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

3

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Puncture

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 
SteepSlope Site 1.06 Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.06-1. Multiple hail marks shows.

1.06-2. Dent left from hail.

1.06-3. Hail damage on shingle.

1.06-4. Hail damage on shingle.


 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site: 1.08

 

Inspection Number

1.08

Zip

75006

Site Latitude

32.982525

Site Longitude

-96.903053

Area Size (Square feet)

2,800

Approximate Age (Years)

3-6

General Condition

Good

Slope

3-4:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

11-15

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

61-75

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Puncture

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

Minimal damage to field shingles, however the shingles are well adhered and would increase the difficulty of repair.


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 1.08 Photographs

 

 

1.08-1. Overview of roof looking west.

1.08-2. Overview of south facing slope.

1.08-3.Bruise” in shingle, 1 of 2.

1.08-4. Fractures on bottom of same shingle (arrow), 2 of 2.


 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site: 1.11

 

Inspection Number

1.11

Zip

75006

Site Latitude

32.963541

Site Longitude

-96.853992

Area Size (Square feet)

2,500

Approximate Age (Years)

9-12

General Condition

Fair

Slope

3-4:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

20-50

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 1.11 Photographs

 

 

1.11-1. West facing slope area with many impacted shingles.

1.11-2. Overview of some “bruised” shingles.

1.11-3. Close-up of “bruised” shingle laminate.

1.11-4. Overview of some “bruised” shingles.


 


 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site: 1.14

 

Inspection Number

1.14

Zip

75019

Site Latitude

32.967171

Site Longitude

-96.982449

Area Size (Square feet)

2,400

Approximate Age (Years)

3-6

General Condition

Good

Slope

3-4:12

Roof Type

Standard 3 tab asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

11-15

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

75-90

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Puncture

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Granule loss and mat fracture

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 1.14 Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

1.14-1. South facing slope area with many impacted shingles.

1.14-2. Overview of 1-inch impact mark on damaged 3-tab shingle.

1.14-3. Overview of 1-inch to 1-1/4-inch impact mark on damaged 3-tab shingle.

1.14-4. Damaged 3 tab shingle in Photo 5.


 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site: 1.16

 

Inspection Number

1.16

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.858906

Site Longitude

-96.987457

Area Size (Square feet)

44,658

Approximate Age (Years)

12-15

General Condition

Fair

Slope

3-4:12

Roof Type

Painted structural metal panel

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

20-50

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

11-15

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

4

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

61-75

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

4

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Dent (Metal Roofing),   panel overlap openings

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Dent (Metal Roofing)

Comments Regarding Inspection

Many panels had seam openings


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 1.16 Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

1.16-1. WSW facing slope area with many impact depressions in metal roof ribs.

1.16-2. WSW facing slope area with many impact depressions in metal roof ribs. Overview of impact marks (circled on metal panels).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.16-3. Overview close-up of impact depressions in metal roof rib.

1.16-4. Close-up of impact depressions in metal roof rib in Photo 3.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.16-5. Overview close-up of impact depressions in metal roof rib.

1.16-6. Cross view close-up of impact depressions in metal roof rib.

 

1.16-7. 4 to 5-inch impact depression with smaller impacts marks also.


 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site: 1.23

 

Inspection Number

1.23

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.512537

Site Longitude

-97.001941

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

9-12

General Condition

Good

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Metal Shake Panel

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

20-50

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

16-20

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

61-75

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

Unknown

Overall Damage Rating

4

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Dent (Metal Roofing)

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Dent (Metal Roofing), Seam openings

Comments Regarding Inspection

Damage for side laps and for dents. Damage on EIFS wall cladding also.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 1.23 Photographs

 

 

 

 

1.23-1. Wood damage from hail.

1.23-2. Hail mark shown.

1.23-3. Metal damage from hail.

1.23-4. Shingle damage from hail.


 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site: 1.25

 

Inspection Number

1.25

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.512693

Site Longitude

-97.000103

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

10-15

General Condition

Good

Slope

8-10:12

Roof Type

Concrete tile, profile

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

2-3 field tile and 1 trim tile

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

2-3

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2 inches

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

46-60

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

Unknown

Overall Damage Rating

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Sidelap corners and one rake trim tile

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Tile breakage

Comments Regarding Inspection

Damage limited based on height, and limited access due to steep slope observation by camera from ground elevation.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
SteepSlope Site 1.25 Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

01.25-1. Overview of chipped tiles.

01.25-2. Close-up of corner chipped tile.

01.25-3. View of cracked rake trim tile and splash marks on tiles.

01-25.4. Splash marks on tiles.


 

 

 

 

 

Team 02 Summary Report

 

 

Overview

 

Team 2 observednineteen roofs in the greater Dallas area. The first day was spent mostly on the east side of Dallas. The hail in the area inspected was not severe enough to damage the shingles on the roofs we observed. The following several days the team traveled out to Keller and Arlingtonbut observed very little, if any hail damage. Some small damage to ridge shingles was observed. One of the roofs in Keller was a Class 4 IR thatexhibited no hail damage. Other structures near that house showed the hail wasa little over two inch in diameterin the area. That was the only Class 4 asphalt roof the team encountered.

 

The team traveled to Irving and near the Dallas-Fort Worth airport finding areas that had been hit with more moderate size hail.In Irving, the team inspected several metal (Class 4) shingle roofs but observed little damage to them. The roofsappeared to survive the hail in goodshape even though the team found evidence of broken skylights. On an apartment complex near the airport signs of hail that did substantial damage to roof, cars and other objects were observed. In this area the team measured hail size up to three inches in diameter. On the apartment complex theteam observed an area that exhibited in excess of twenty fractured shingles per square.

 

Roof types observed included the following: 4 metal shingles roofs

2 three-tab asphalt shingle roofs

13 laminated asphalt roofs (one was a Class 4)

 

Team Members

Bill Morgan, Report WriterDan Behrens, Photographer

Wanda Edwards, Data Collector


 

Team 02 Data Reportsand Photographs Steep Slope

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 2.05

 

 

Inspection Number

2.05

Zip

75238

Site Latitude

32.884937

Site Longitude

-96.725022

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

6-9

General Condition

Good

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

0

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

 

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

 

Overall Damage Rating

0

Types of Hail Damage Observed

 

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 2.05 Photographs

 

 

2.05-1. North slope overview.

2.05-2._West slope overview.

2.05-3. Bruise in ridge shingle

2.05-4. Dents in flue cap.


 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 2.06

 

 

Inspection Number

2.06

Zip

75238

Site Latitude

32.88773

Site Longitude

-96.719833

Area Size (Square feet)

6,100

Approximate Age (Years)

 

General Condition

Good

Slope

7-8:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

0

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

 

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

 

Overall Damage Rating

0

Types of Hail Damage Observed

 

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 2.06 Photographs

 

2.06-1. Repair at northwest-facing valley.

2.06-2. Weathered shingle bruise at ridge.

2.06-3. Broken skylights.

2.06-4. Dents in vent cover.


 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 2.07

 

 

Inspection Number

2.07

Zip

75220

Site Latitude

32.870883

Site Longitude

-96.841248

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

6-9

General Condition

Good

Slope

3-4:12

Roof Type

Standard 3 tab asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

11-15

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

3

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Puncture

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 2.07 Photographs

 

 

 

 

2.07-1. Dented flue cap.

2.07-2. Dent in aluminum turbine vent.

2.07-3. Close up.

2.07-4. West test square overview.


 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 2.09

 

 

Inspection Number

2.09

Zip

75019

Site Latitude

32.968735

Site Longitude

-96.972256

Area Size (Square feet)

2,500

Approximate Age (Years)

9-12

General Condition

Good

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Standard 3 tab asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

75-90

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

No

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 2.09 Photographs

 

 

 

 

2.09-1. West slope overview.

2.09-2. West test square overview.

2.09-3. Dented flue cap.

2.09-4. Bruised shingle.


 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 2.16

 

 

Inspection Number

2.16

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.856518

Site Longitude

-96.94492

Area Size (Square feet)

6,100

Approximate Age (Years)

0-3

General Condition

Excellent

Slope

12:12

Roof Type

Impact resistant stone-coated metal panels

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

0

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

No

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

0

Types of Hail Damage Observed

 

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 2.16 Photographs

 

2.16-1. Granules and asphalt binder had been scraped off.

2.16-2. Mechanically caused scrape and dent, south slope.

2.16-3. South slope.

2.16-4. Mechanically caused scrape, east slope.


 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 2.19

 

 

Inspection Number

2.19

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.863622

Site Longitude

-97.015491

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

 

General Condition

Fair

Slope

3-4:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

>20

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

3

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Chipped/Broken Ridge, Puncture, Surface Pitting, Substantial Loss of Granule Surfacing

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Chipped/Broken Ridge, Puncture, Substantial Loss of Granule Surfacing

Comments Regarding Inspection

Mixture of hail up to 3".


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 2.19 Photographs

 

 

 

2.19-1. Bruise in ridge shingle.

2.19-2. Dents in aluminum turbine vent.

2.19-3. One-and-one-half inch wide bruise.

2.19-4. East test square.

2.19.-5. West test square.

2.19-6.Two-inch wide bruise.


 

2.19-7. Two-and-one-half inch wide bruise.

2.19-8. Close up.

2.19-9. Dented gutter.

2.19-10. Two-inch wide spatter mark on transformer box.


 

 

 

 

 

Team 03 Summary Report

 

Overview

 

Team 3 (John Paul Hadden, Dale McLean, Dave Fulton, and Rem Brown) investigated fifteen roofs over the three-day period of June 14 to June16, 2011. Of the fifteen roofs theteam investigated, four were shingle roofs, three were metal roofs, two were modified bitumen roofs, two were BUR with gravel cover, two were tile, one was a single ply roof, and one was asynthetic slate material. Several of the sites visited had multiple roof types; each type was considered as aseparate investigation. One of the shingle roofs was impact resistant. The team recorded one metal roof as impactresistant based on expertise withinthe team. The synthetic slate roof was also an impact rated product.

 

Hail sizes at thesites investigated ranged from 1 inch to 4 inch. The team did not investigate any site that did not sustain hail impact damage to the roof. Most of the roofshad hail between 1 inch - 1.5 inches (eight of the fifteen roofs). Five roofshad hail between

2.25 inches - 2.5inches and two roofs (at one site) showed indication of 4 inch hailstones.

 

Generally, the metal roofs had some cosmetic damage evidenced by dents but did not appear to have any punctures or damage that would result in potential roof leakage. The impact resistant metal roof had very little apparent damage, but the team’s investigation was cut short when thebuilding owner arrived and ordered the team off the roof (the team had permission from the buildingmanager to investigate the roof, but apparently he had not checked with the owner). Hail impacting the metal roofs varied in size from 1 inch- 4 inch, with the smallest hailstonesimpacting the impact resistant roof. The metalroof that experienced 4 inch hailhad over 100 dents in a 100 square foot test area (not all hits were 4 inch). The 4 inch hail occurred inthe City of Irving, TX. The metal roofs were all less than 10 years old.

 

The shingle roofs experienced hail between 1.25 inch- 1.5 inch and had fairly severe damage with the exception of the impact resistant roof. Theimpact resistant roof had onlyminimal damage. Three of the four shingle roofs were less than 10 years old(including the IRR); the fourth was,according to the homeowner, 23 years old.

 

The two modifiedbitumen roofs were estimated to be between 3-10 years old and experienced hail between 2.25 inches - 4 inches. Damage for both was considered fairly severe, based on visual observation. Both roofs were on buildings owned by the City of Irving.


 

 

 

The BUR roofs were exposed to 1.5 inch - 2.25 inch hailstones and appeared to haveminimal damage based on a visual assessment. The age of the BUR roofs was estimated between 5- 10 years old. These roofs were onbuildings owned by the City of Irving.

 

The team investigated two types of tile roofs: a flat tile roof and a barrel tile roof. The maximum size of hailstones impactingthe tile roofs was estimated at 2.25 inches for the flat tile and 2.5 inches for the barrel tile. The flat tileexperienced moderate damage (at least 20tiles were broken in the field from hail impacts). Some flat tile damageappeared to be pre- existing cracked off right corners. The barrel tile roof was evaluated from the ground anddamage was classified as moderate to severe. The age of the roofs was unknown. Both roofs were on buildings owned by theCity of Irving.

 

The single ply roofcovering experienced 2.5 inches hailstones and the visible damage was estimated as moderate. Damage belowthe roof covering could not be determined. The age was unknown. The roof was on a building owned by the City of Irving.

 

The synthetic slateroof was exposed to 1 inch hailstones and sustained minimal damage. Further research after the field investigation indicates this product was an impact rated product. Most of the damage appeared to be cosmetic; chipped corners and edges. The home was located on the fairway of a golf course and we found several golf balls in the yard. It was interesting to note that we saw just a few areas in the field of the shingle that had spider cracks; we attributed that damage to golf ball impacts.

 

 

 

Team Members

JohnPaul Hadden, Data Collector DaleMcLean, Photographer Dave Fulton,Data Collector

Rem Brown, Data Collector


 

Team 03 Data Reportsand Photographs Steep Slope

 

Steep SlopeInspection Site 3.02

 

Inspection Number

3.02

Zip

75006

Site Latitude

32.978613

Site Longitude

-96.900745

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

6-9

General Condition

Good

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

>20

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

31-45

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Chipped/Broken Ridge, Puncture, Spalling of Surface Coating

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Spalling of Surface Coating

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 3.02 Photographs

 

 

 

 

3.02-1. Number of hits in 100 sq ft test area.

3.02-2. Typical hail damage for this site.

3.02-3. No hail damage on east side of weather station.

3.02-4. Hail damage on west side of weather station.


 

 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 3.03

 

Inspection Number

3.03

Zip

75006

Site Latitude

32.979097

Site Longitude

-96.905739

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

>15

General Condition

Fair

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

>20

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Puncture, Spalling of Surface Coating

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Spalling of Surface Coating

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 3.03 Photographs

 

 

 

 

3.03-1. Number of impacts in 100 sq ft test area.

3.03-2. Typical hail damage for this site.

3.03-3. Dents on vent stack indicating hail impact from southwest.

3.03-4. Same vent stack at 3.03-3 indicating damage on opposite side.


 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 3.07

 

Inspection Number

3.07

Zip

76039

Site Latitude

32.863475

Site Longitude

-97.093441

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

3-6

General Condition

Good

Slope

7-8:12

Roof Type

Impact resistant 3 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

16-20

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Spalling of Surface Coating

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Spalling of Surface Coating

Comments Regarding Inspection

Impact resistant shingle roof with minimal damage. Test areas measured and evaluated from ladder (5'x20').


 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 3.07 Photographs

 

 

 

 

3.07-1 Overview

3.07-2 Skylight damage

3.07-3 Damaged shingle

3.07-4 Damage showing reinforcement


 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 3.09B

 

Inspection Number

03.09B

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.862067

Site Longitude

-97.01915

Area Size (Square feet)

27,300

Approximate Age (Years)

0-3

General Condition

Excellent

Slope

11-12:12

Roof Type

Other

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

6-10

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

>20

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

4

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

75-99

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

4

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Dent (Metal Roofing)

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Dent (Metal Roofing)

Comments Regarding Inspection

Severe denting of metal roofing, but no apparent functional damage. Did not climb on roof due to steep slope, but could observe damage from a lower flat roof surface.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 3.09 B Photograph

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 3.11

 

Inspection Number

3.11

Zip

75039

Site Latitude

32.861174

Site Longitude

-96.927662

Area Size (Square feet)

8,800

Approximate Age (Years)

12-15

General Condition

Good

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Flat Tile

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

31-45

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

No

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

3

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Chipped/Broken Ridge

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Chipped/Broken Ridge

Comments Regarding Inspection

Damage was mainly cracked off right corners, not clear that damage was caused by hail storm.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 3.11 Photographs

 

 

 

 

3.11-1. Thickness of concrete tile.

3.11-2. Recent right corner break in tile.

3.11-3. Tile fractured. Note white “splatter” marks indicating hail impact.

3.11-4. Typical hail splatter mark on tile.


 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 3.12B

 

Inspection Number

03.12B

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.85015

Site Longitude

-96.9603

Area Size (Square feet)

11,506

Approximate Age (Years)

 

General Condition

Good

Slope

7-8:12

Roof Type

Barrel Tile

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

16-20

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

4

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Chipped/Broken Ridge

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Chipped/Broken Ridge

Comments Regarding Inspection

Observations made from ground.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 3.12B Photograph

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Team 04 Summary Report

Overview

 

Team 4 conductedsurveys on 11 different roofs. The team observed evidence of hail sizes ranging from 1.25 inch to 4 inches,with most sizes between 2.25 inches – 3.25 inches.

 

The team primarilysurveyed low-slope roofs including three modified bituminous (MB) and four built up roofs (BUR) with gravel surfacing. The most hail resistant roof systems we observed were graveled BUR, which showed few signs of hail damage in the field of the roof. This was especially true when gravel was well embedded in asphalt or coal tar pitchflood coats, as opposed to those with poorly embedded gravel. Observed damageto these roofs was generally limitedto MB base flashings and sheet metal components.

 

The team noted thatolder MB membranes did not perform as well as newer versions.

 

Of the two adjacent steep-sloped residences surveyed by the team, the one with Class 4asphalt shingles clearly outperformed the one that did not include Class 4 shingles.

 

The team alsosurveyed one very old and large church that wascovered primarily with flat tiles.The tiles exhibited moderate damage from hail as large as four inches in diameter.

 

Roof-mountedequipment with light-gauge metal components (such as vents and A/C cooling fins) was extensivelydamaged, as were copper flashings. Old skylights were extremely brittle with damage ranging from minor cracks tocompletely shattered.

 

Team Members

 

Apoorv Dabral, Data CollectorPhil Mayfield, Team Captain ChuckMiccolis, Report Writer


 

Team 04 Data Reports and Photographs Steep Slope

Inspection Site 4.04

 

Inspection Number

4.04

 

Zip

75220

Site Latitude

32.863855

Site Longitude

-96.845074

Area Size (Square feet)

3,754

Approximate Age (Years)

3-6

General Condition

Excellent

Slope

11-12:12

Roof Type

Impact resistant 3-ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

Yes

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

 

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

46-60

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

No

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

1

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Minimal granule loss

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

Minimal granule loss on south and east slopes. Hail pad had maximum indentation of 1.25 in.

Remainder of hail pad indentations measured

0.25 to 0.75 in. The resident indicated that there were golf ball sized hail.

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 4.04 Photographs

 

 

 

 

4.04-1. Possible hail damage on class 4 shingles.

4.04-2. Hail bruise mark on class 4 shingles.

4.04-3. Exposed bitumen in the damaged shingle.

4.04-4. Exposed bitumen in the damaged shingle.


 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 4.05

 

 

Inspection Number

4.05

Zip

75220

Site Latitude

32.861154

Site Longitude

-96.839787

Area Size (Square feet)

2,500

Approximate Age (Years)

3-6

General Condition

Good

Slope

7-8:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2-ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

46-60

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

3

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture, Chipped/Broken Ridge, Puncture, Surface Pitting, Spalling of Surface Coating

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture, Chipped/Broken Ridge, Spalling of Surface Coating

Comments Regarding Inspection

Primary damage area is on south east side of roof slopes.

 


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 4.05 Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

4.05-1. Bruise mark on the laminated shingle.

4.05-2. Fractured laminated shingle.

4.05-3. Several damaged asphalt shingles on the roof.

4.05-4. Punctured plastic equipment on the roof.


 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 4.11

 

Inspection Number

4.11

Zip

75165

Site Latitude

32.909167

Site Longitude

-96.816944

Area Size (Square feet)

25,000

Approximate Age (Years)

>15

General Condition

Good

Slope

>12:12

Roof Type

Flat Tile

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

4

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

46-60

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

No

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Chipped/Broken Ridge

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Chipped/Broken Ridge

Comments Regarding Inspection

Cracks, chips breaks and dislodgment on     tiles. Perimeter copper gutters had multiple indentations and deflections caused from hailstones.


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 4.11 Photographs

 

 

 

 

4.11-1. Multiple indentations on the copper gutter.

4.11-2. Chipped edge of tile on steep slope roof.

4.11-3. Chipped edge of tile on steep slope roof.

4.11-4. Multiple chipped tiles on steep slope roof.


 

 

 

 

Team 05 Summary Report

 

 

Overview

 

Team 5 observed 17 roofs primarily in the Dallas area near DFW and in Irving where hail sized ranged from pea size tosoftball size.   The damage varied fromnone to severe.

 

Roof types:

7 - asphalt laminatedshingles (1 was identified as impact resistant)4 - three tab asphalt shingles (2 were identified as impact resistant) 1 - with both laminated and 3tab asphalt shingles

2 - heavy gauge granule covered metal shingles 1 - thin gauge metal shingle

1 - cedar shake

1 – cement barrel tile

 

It was observed onthe impact resistant laminated shingle roof that while the shingle sustained minimal impact damage from the 2.5 inch hail in the field of the roof, closed cutvalleys sustained puncture damage where there was some unsupported bridging in the valley.

 

One roof in an areaof hail reported to be at least 2.5 inch had a solar powered roof vents. The metal vent covers sustained afew dents, but the small solar panels were   not damaged.   Cars parked in the driveway had their windows broken.

 

Site 5.08, an impactresistant roof and site 5.09, a non-impact resistant roof are located on adjacent properties. Sites 5.14, 5.15,and 5.16 are all located within a few houses of each other.   These threesites were all different materials with different damage levels.

 

 

Team Members

 

David Balistreri, Report Writer Tanya Brown, PhotographerBill Woodring, Data Collector


 

Team 05 Data Reports& Photographs Steep Slope

Steep Slope SiteInspection 5.01

 

Inspection Number

5.01

Zip

75220

Site Latitude

32.867829

Site Longitude

-96.847784

Area Size   (Square feet)

3,000

Approximate Age (Years)

3-6

General Condition

Good

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Impact resistant 3 tab asphalt

Impact Resistant?

Yes

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

0

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

No

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

0

Types of Hail Damage Observed

 

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Dent (Metal Roofing)

Comments Regarding Inspection

Little or no hail damage. No hail damage to screens or AC.


 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.01 Photographs

 

 

 

 

5.01-1. Impact on metal dormer.

5.01-2. Impact on metal dormer.

5.01-3. West facing slope, IR blisters.

5.01-4. Unbroken rash blisters.


 

 

 

 

Inspection Number

5.03

Zip

75061

Site Latitude

32.828544

Site Longitude

-96.919901

Area Size (Square feet)

3,500

Approximate Age (Years)

>15

General Condition

Fair

Slope

3-4:12

Roof Type

Standard 3 tab asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

0-15

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

 

Overall Damage Rating

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture, spalling of surface coating, substantial loss of granule surfacing

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.03 Photographs

 

 

 

 


 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 5.05

 

Inspection Number

5.05

Zip

75060

Site Latitude

32.788867

Site Longitude

-96.971254

Area Size (Square feet)

3,500

Approximate Age (Years)

>15

General Condition

Poor

Slope

3-4:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply Asphalt Shingle

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

 

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

 

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

 

Overall Damage Rating

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture, Surface Pitting, Spalling of Surface Coating

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture, Surface Pitting, Spalling of Surface Coating

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.05 Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

5.05-1. Overview

5.05-2. Hail scuffed shingle

5.05-3. Hail scuffed shingle

5.05-4. Hail dents on air handler


 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 5.06

 

Inspection Number

5.06

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.873644

Site Longitude

-97.001987

Area Size (Square feet)

4,000

Approximate Age (Years)

>15

General Condition

Poor

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

6-10

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

3.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

 

Overall Damage Rating

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture, Dent (Metal Roofing), Surface Pitting, Spalling of Surface Coating, Substantial Loss of Granule Surfacing

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Surface Pitting, Spalling of Surface Coating, Substantial Loss of Granule Surfacing

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.06 Photographs

 

 

 

 

5.06-1. Impact fracture on shingle tab.

5.06-2. Measured areas with impact locations marked on East facing slope.

5.06-3. Impact marks on hip shingles.

5.06-4. Impact marks on wood siding.

 

5.06-5. Impact marks on metal vent cover.


 

 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 5.07

 

Inspection Number

5.07

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.855681

Site Longitude

-96.967319

Area Size (Square feet)

2,500

Approximate Age (Years)

 

General Condition

Good

Slope

3-4:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

>20

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

 

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

 

Overall Damage Rating

3

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Surface Pitting, Spalling of Surface Coating

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Surface Pitting, Spalling of Surface Coating

Comments Regarding Inspection

Metal canopy had dents


 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.07 Photographs

 

 

 

 

5.07-1. Impact dent on bottom of metal canopy.

5.07-2. Splatter marks on rust of chimney cover.

5.07-3. Laying our 10’ x 10’ area to count number of impacts on North facing slope.

5.07-4. Impact marks on roof turbine.

5.07-5. Impact mark on metal canopy.

5.07-6. Impact locations marked on East facing slope of roof.


 


 

 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 5.08

 

Inspection Number

5.08

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.84913

Site Longitude

-96.978573

Area Size (Square feet)

3,000

Approximate Age (Years)

 

General Condition

Excellent

Slope

3-4:12

Roof Type

Impact resistant 3 tab Asphalt Shingle

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

6-10

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

 

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

 

Overall Damage Rating

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Surface Pitting

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Surface Pitting

Comments Regarding Inspection

Slight granule loss at point of impact -Metal roof 0-5 impacts


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.08 Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

5.08-1. 4-inch dent.

5.08-2. 2-inch dent.

5.08-3. Granule loss.

5.08-4. Multiple hail marks.

 

5.08-5. Multiple hail marks.


 

 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 5.09

 

Inspection Number

5.09

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.84914

Site Longitude

-96.978375

Area Size (Square feet)

2,500

Approximate Age (Years)

 

General Condition

Good

Slope

3-4:12

Roof Type

Standard 3 tab asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

>20

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Surface Pitting, Spalling of Surface Coating, Substantial Loss of Granule Surfacing

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Surface Pitting, Spalling of Surface Coating, Substantial Loss of Granule Surfacing

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.09 Photographs

 

5.09-1. 2-1/4-inch hail mark.

5.09-2. Multiple hail marks.

5.09-3. Granule loss.

5.09-4. Dented vent cap.

5.09-5. Multiple hail marks.

5.09-6. Damaged shingle.


 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 5.10

 

 

Inspection Number

5.10

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.857457

Site Longitude

-96.982207

Area Size (Square feet)

4,200

Approximate Age (Years)

3-6

General Condition

Good

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

6-10

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

 

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

3

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture, Dent (Metal Roofing), Surface Pitting, Spalling of Surface Coating

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Dent (Metal Roofing), Surface Pitting, Spalling of Surface Coating

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.10 Photographs

 

 

 

 

5.10-1. Dent in turbine vent

5.10-2. Dent in turbine vent

5.10-3. Shingle fracture along ridge

5.10-4. Close up of impact mark on shingle

5.10-5. 10’ x 10’ area on North facing slope with impact locations marked

5.10-6. Dent in gutter


 

5.10-7. Broken plastic receiver on satellite dish

5.10-8. Hailstones saved by homeowner


 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 5.11

 

Inspection Number

5.11

Zip

76210

Site Latitude

33.160196

Site Longitude

-97.079723

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

6-9

General Condition

Good

Slope

9-10:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

16-20

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

3

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture, Surface Pitting

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture, Surface Pitting

Comments Regarding Inspection

Most damage in south.


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.11 Photographs

 

 

5.11-1. Overview

5.11-2. Hail hits on air handler

5.11-3. Hail damage showing felts

5.11-4. Hail damage on vent stack


 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 5.12

 

Inspection Number

5.12

Zip

75068

Site Latitude

33.186676

Site Longitude

-97.010886

Area Size (Square feet)

8,000

Approximate Age (Years)

0-3

General Condition

Excellent

Slope

7-8:12

Roof Type

Impact Resistant 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

6-10

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

 

Overall Damage Rating

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture, Surface Pitting

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture, Surface Pitting

Comments Regarding Inspection

Plastic roof vent covers were punctured. No difference noted between different directional slopes.


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.12 Photographs

 

 

 

 

5.12-1. Severe damage to plastic static roof vent.

5.12-2. Splatter marks on chimney vents.

5.12-3. Damage to multiple roof turbine vents.

5.12-4. Multiple impact locations along closed-cut valley of IR roof.


 


 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 5.13

 

Inspection Number

5.13

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.850009

Site Longitude

-96.937329

Area Size (Square feet)

3,900

Approximate Age (Years)

0-3

General Condition

Excellent

Slope

3-4:12

Roof Type

Profiled Metal

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

No

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

 

Overall Damage Rating

0

Types of Hail Damage Observed

 

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.13 Photographs

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 5.14

 

Inspection Number

5.14

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.850261

Site Longitude

-96.936894

Area Size (Square feet)

4,000

Approximate Age (Years)

0-3

General Condition

Excellent

Slope

7-8:12

Roof Type

Profiled Metal Panels

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

No

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

 

Overall Damage Rating

1

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Dent (Metal Roofing)

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Dent (Metal Roofing)

Comments Regarding Inspection

Minimum damage without surface loss.


 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.14 Photographs

 


 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 5.15

 

Inspection Number

5.15

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.850475

Site Longitude

-96.937774

Area Size (Square feet)

3,000

Approximate Age (Years)

9-12

General Condition

Fair

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Profiled Metal Panels

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-20

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

No

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

4

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Dent (Metal Roofing)

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Dent (Metal Roofing)

Comments Regarding Inspection

Car in driveway with 7 hits on hood.


 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.15 Photographs

 

 

 

 

5.15-1. Large dent in metal shingle.

5.15-2. Large dent in metal shingle.

5.15-3. Ridge of metal shingle roof.

5.15-4. 10’ x 10’ area on South facing slope with impact locations marked.


 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 5.16

 

Inspection Number

5.16

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.850214

Site Longitude

-96.936182

Area Size (Square feet)

5,500

Approximate Age (Years)

>15

General Condition

Good

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

ConcreteTile

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

6-10

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

 

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

 

Overall Damage Rating

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Broken and cracked tile

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

Overall faired well except for few broken tile


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.16 Photographs

 

 

 

 

5.16-1. Right corner fracture on concrete barrel tile.

5.16-2. Large dents in metal vent.

5.16-3. Fracture from large hail impact.

5.16-4. Close up of fracture from large hail impact, with splatter mark.


 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 5.17

 

Inspection Number

5.17

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.854689

Site Longitude

-96.937121

Area Size (Square feet)

3,500

Approximate Age (Years)

>15

General Condition

Poor

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Cedar Shake

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

>20

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

 

Overall Damage Rating

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture, Puncture, Surface Pitting

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture, Puncture, Surface Pitting

Comments Regarding Inspection

Many dents. Very brittle wood. Could just view roof from ladder as to not cause further damage.


 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 5.17 Photographs

 

 

 

 

5.17-1. Homeowner saved hailstones.

5.17-2. Large puncture from hail in cedar shake.

5.17-3. Splatter mark on stained wooden fence.

5.17-4. Large impact and broken cedar shake.


 

 

Steep Slope Site Inspection 5.18

 

Inspection Number

5.18

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.873644

Site Longitude

-96.999979

Area Size (Square feet)

4,200

Approximate Age (Years)

 

General Condition

Good

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

3

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Puncture, Surface Pitting

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Puncture

Comments Regarding Inspection

Windows shattered in cars. Hole in top of AC beside house.


 

Steep Slope Site 5.18 Photographs

 

 

5.18-1. Fracture in asphalt shingle.

5.18-2. Ridge and damaged turbine vent.

5.18-3. Tear on shingle edge.

5.18-4. Spatter marks on metal vent stack.

5.18-5. Dent and spatter mark on metal vents

5.18-6. Dents in metal vent.


 


 

 

Team 06 Summary Report

 

 

 

Overview

 

Team 6 observed 15roofs primarily, concentrated in the Irving area and neighboring cities in Dallas County and a few in theColleyville/Keller/Fort Worth area of Tarrant County. Five of the 15 roofs were known to be impact resistant roofs(IRR). Hail sized ranged from lessthan .5 inch to 2.5 inches. The damage varied from no apparent damage   to severedamage.

 

Roof types:

13 - asphalt laminated 2 ply shingles (3 were identifiedas impact resistant)

  Oneof the 13 roofs had a metal turret and metal entry overhang in addition to 2 ply

1 - synthetic plastic(identified impact resistant)

1 - standard 3 tab asphalt shingle (was identified asimpact resistant)

 

Fiveof the 15 roofs were less than 3 years old, with the newest roof having been installed February 2011 (per homeowner).Six of the 15 roofs were 7-9 years old.

 

Five of the 15 roofs had no apparent damage, based on our observation. Of these 5: 3were IRR and 2 were undetermined.

 

 

Team Members

 

Doug Dewey, PhotographerJohn Gimple, Data Collector LynneLawry, Report Writer Shiraj Khan,Data Collector


 

 

Team 06 Data Reports and Photographs Steep Slope

Steep SlopeInspection Site 6.01

 

 

Inspection Number

6.01

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.841885

Site Longitude

-96.966651

Area Size (Square feet)

4,000

Approximate Age (Years)

6-9

General Condition

Good

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

 

Overall Damage Rating

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Chipped/Broken Ridge, Puncture, Substantial Loss of Granule Surfacing

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Chipped/Broken Ridge, Puncture, Spalling of Surface Coating

Comments Regarding Inspection

Heavily treed- 13 lg trees on 1/5 acre property


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 6.01 Photographs

 

6.01-1. Dent profile.

6.01-2. Dent boundary and coinciding splash mark.

6.01-3. Splash marks on steel chimney cap.

6.01-4. Impact damage.


 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 6.07

 

 

Inspection Number

6.07

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.860733

Site Longitude

-96.96667

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

6-9

General Condition

Good

Slope

9-10:12

Roof Type

Synthetic Slate (plastic)

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-15

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

0

Types of Hail Damage Observed

 

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

Exterior of home is stucco


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 6.07 Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.07-1. Splash mark on synthetic simulated slate.

6.07-2. Splash marks on synthetic simulated slate.

6.07-3. Dent on attic vent.

6.07-4. Splash marks on attic vent.


 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 6.08

 

 

Inspection Number

6.08

Zip

75234

Site Latitude

32.923779

Site Longitude

-96.87694

Area Size (Square feet)

2,500

Approximate Age (Years)

9-12

General Condition

Fair

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Impact resistant 3 tab asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

20-50

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

6-10

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.75

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

3

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture, Substantial Loss of Granule Surfacing

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture /Rupture

Comments Regarding Inspection

Partially treed property. -Assessment-for class 4, we would have expected no damage.


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 6.08 Photographs

 

 

 

 

6.08-1. Hail scuff on impact resistant shingle

6.08-2.   Hail scuff on shingle


 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 6.11

 

 

Inspection Number

6.11

Zip

76034

Site Latitude

32.889199

Site Longitude

-97.16713

Area Size (Square feet)

3,000

Approximate Age (Years)

6-9

General Condition

Good

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

0

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

No

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

0

Types of Hail Damage Observed

 

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 6.11 Photographs

 

 

 

 

6.11-1. Dents in turbine vent.

6.11-2. Dents in aluminum vent cap.

 

6.11-3. Splash marks on steel attic vent.

6.11-4. Dent in aluminum gutter.


 

6.11-5.   Bruises on shingles

6.11-6. Crack in unsupported area

6.11-7. Penetrating damage with erosion

6.11-8. Hail mark


 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 6.13

 

 

Inspection Number

6.13

Zip

76244

Site Latitude

32.947672

Site Longitude

-97.273536

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

0-3

General Condition

Excellent

Slope

9-10:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1.75

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Minor loss of granule

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

SteepSlope Site 6.13 Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

6.13-1. View of granule damage and mat fracture.

6.13-2. View splash mark on an attic vent.

6.13-3. View splash mark on an attic vent.

6.13-4. View of test square.

6.13-5. View of test square.

6.13-6. View of a dent in a downspout.


 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 6.14

 

 

Inspection Number

6.14

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.858062

Site Longitude

-96.974398

Area Size (Square feet)

3,000

Approximate Age (Years)

0-3

General Condition

Excellent

Slope

>12:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply asphalt

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

6-10

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

 

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

NA

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

1

Types of Hail Damage Observed

 

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

Very steep roof that was viewed from ground and ladder.


 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 6.14 Photographs

 

 

 

 


 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 6.15

 

 

Inspection Number

6.15

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.85736

Site Longitude

-96.973638

Area Size (Square feet)

3000

Approximate Age (Years)

0-3

General Condition

Excellent

Slope

>12:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply Asphalt Shingle/Standing-seam Copper

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

6-10

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

>20

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

4

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Dent (Metal Roofing)

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Dent (Metal Roofing)

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 6.15 Photographs

 

 

 

 

6.15-1. Splash mark and dent on copper roof panel.

6.15-2. Dents in copper roof panels.

6.15-3. Dents in copper roof panels.

6.15-4. Shingle repairs unrelated to hail.

6.15-5. Marks on wood fencing.

6.15-6. Dents in copper roof panels.


 

 

 

 

 

Team 07 Summary Report

 

 

Overview

 

Team 7 observed seven roofs that were scattered all over the DFW Metroplex in North Central Texas. The areas covered were Prosper, Irving, North Richland Hills, Duncanville andArlington. The larger hail was found in Prosper, Irving and North RichlandHills where hail sizes ranged from less than 2 inches to 3.25 inches. The damage varied from no apparent damage (Arlington) to severedamage (Prosper, Irving, & N. Richland Hills).

 

Roof types:

1 - Asphalt laminated shingles 3 – Wood shingle roofs

1 – TPO membrane roof

1 - Standing Seam Metal Roof 1 - Synthetic slate roof

 

 

Twoof the seven roofs had no apparent hail damage, based on our observation.

 

 

 

 

Team Members

 

LynneChristensen, Report Writer

Bert Nunez, Data Collector, Photographer Peter Parmenter, Photographer, Data Collector Tim Veigel, Data Collector


 

Team 07 Data Reportsand Photographs Steep Slope

Steep SlopeInspection Site 7.02

 

 

Inspection Number

7.02

Zip

75234

Site Latitude

32.917182

Site Longitude

-96.891975

Area Size   (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

0-3

General Condition

Fair

Slope

7-8:12

Roof Type

Cedar Shingle

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

75-90

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

No

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Minor dimpling, some cracks, discoloration

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Minor Dimpling

Comments Regarding Inspection

Facility personnel don't recall any damage from hail. New ridgecap from Christmas light damage not due to hail. Combination of asphalt and cedar roofs-multiple buildings on site


 

Steep Slope Site 7.02 Photographs

 

7.02-1. Cedar shingles and sidewall shingles.

7.02-2. Cedar shingles with some lifting.

7.02-3. Cedar shingles.

7.02-4. New ridge from Christmas light damage.


 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 7.04

 

 

 

Inspection Number

7.04

Zip

76016

Site Latitude

32.685429

Site Longitude

-97.215367

Area Size (Square feet)

4,000

Approximate Age (Years)

9-12

General Condition

Fair

Slope

5-6:12

Roof Type

Cedar Shingle

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

1

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

1

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Surface Pitting

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Surface Pitting

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 7.05

 

 

Inspection Number

7.05

Zip

76128

Site Latitude

32.874572

Site Longitude

-97.222263

Area Size (Square feet)

5,000

Approximate Age (Years)

0-3

General Condition

Fair

Slope

7-8:12

Roof Type

Laminated 2 ply Asphalt Shingle

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

11-15

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

75-90

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Chipped / Broken Ridge, Dent, Surface Pitting, Substantial Loss of Granule Surfacing

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 7.05 Photographs

 

7.05-1. Asphalt shingle close up.

7.05-2. Hail-caused bruise on asphalt shingle.


 

Steep Slope Inspection Site 7.06

 

Inspection Number

7.06

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.857937

Site Longitude

-96.981922

Area Size (Square feet)

5,000

Approximate Age (Years)

>15

General Condition

Fair

Slope

3-4:12

Roof Type

Cedar Shake

Impact Resistant?

 

Total Impact Marks per square foot on a horizontal surface

16-20

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

>20

Apparent Maximum Hail Size –(Diameter inches)

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

31-45

Is the roof scheduled for replacement?

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Overall Damage Rating

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture, Chipped / Broken Ridge, Surface Pitting

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture / Rupture

Comments Regarding Inspection

Many pieces turn over to expose back side (fresh wood & color); hail fell from the east; vent stacks dented; no damage on west side except for copper colored vent stack. It appears that some spot repairs may have been performed prior to storm.


 

 

 

 

 

Steep Slope Site 7.06 Photographs

 

 

 

 

7.06-1. Broken shakes scattered as debris.

7.06-2. Damage to starter course wood shake.

 

7.06-3. Damaged hot vent cap.

7.06-4. buckled vent cap.


 

AppendixC: Team Summary Low Slope Inspection Reports Team 1 Data Reports and Photographs

 

Low Slope Inspection Site 1.17

 

Facility Name

School

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

1.17

Zip

75061

Site Latitude

32.490474

Site Longitude

-97.000007

Area Size (Square feet)

77,300

Approximate Age (Years)

12-15

General Condition

Good

Slope

1/8:12

Roof Type

Modified Bitumen

Method of Attachment

Hot Mopped

Membrane Type

Modified Bitumen

Seam Types & Spacing

Lapped

Stone Ballasted

No

Cover Board

Perlite

Cover Board Thickness

Unknown

Top Insulation Type

Unknown

Top Insulation Thickness

Unknown

Bottom Insulation Type

NA

Bottom Insulation Thickness

NA

Deck Type

Unknown

Type of Drainage

Perimeter Gutter

Total Impact

1--5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

2

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

76-90

 

 


 

 

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

No

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

No

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

Yes

Is there damage to skylights, EIFS, window screens / fencing?

Yes

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage following this hailstorm?

No.

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components of Mechanical Units

0-5

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components of Heater Flues

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components of Exhaust Vents

 

Impacts per square foot on other Metal Components (Vehicles)

 

Overall Damage

0

Types of Hail Damage Observed

 

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

Low Slope Site 1.17 Photographs

 

 

 

 

1.17-1. Metal damage from hail.

1.17-2. Dent from hail.

1.17-3. Overview of roof.

1.17-4. Hail marks shown.


 

 

Low Slope Inspection Site 1.18

 

 

Facility Name

School

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

1.18

Zip

75061

Site Latitude

32.4920707

Site Longitude

-96.555085

Area Size   (Square feet)

83,700

Approximate Age (Years)

12-15

General Condition

Fair

Slope

1-2:12

Roof Type

Modified Bitumen

Method of Attachment

Hot Mopped

Membrane Type

Modified Bitumen

Seam Types & Spacing

Lapped

Stone Ballasted

No

Cover Board

NA

Cover Board Thickness

NA

Top Insulation Type

Perlite

Top Insulation Thickness

~3/4 inch

Bottom Insulation Type

NA

Bottom Insulation Thickness

NA

Deck Type

Lightweight Insulating Concrete over steel deck

Type of Drainage

Eave Drainage

Total Impact

1—5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

2

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

76-90

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

NA

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

No

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

Yes


 

 

Is there damage to skylights, EIFS, window screens / fencing?

No

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage following this hailstorm?

No.

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components of Mechanical Units

0-5

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components of Heater Flues

0-5

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components of Exhaust Vents

0-5

Impacts per square foot on other Metal Components (Vehicles)

 

Overall Damage

3

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

Low Slope Site 1.18 Photographs

 

1.18-1. Large hail mark.

1.18-2. Large hail mark.

1.18-3. Large hail mark.

1.18-4. Hail penetrated roof.


 

 

Low Slope Inspection Site 1.19

 

 

 

Facility Name

School

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

1.19

Zip

75038

Site Longitude

-96.591198

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

>15

General Condition

Fair

Slope

1/4:12

Roof Type

Modified Bitumen

Method of Attachment

Hot Mopped

Membrane Type

Modified Bitumen

Seam Types & Spacing

Lapped

Stone Ballasted

No

Cover Board

NA

Cover Board Thickness

NA

Top Insulation Type

Perlite

Top Insulation Thickness

~3/4 inch

Bottom Insulation Type

NA

Bottom Insulation Thickness

NA

Deck Type

Believed Lightweight Insulating Concrete over steel deck

Type of Drainage

Internal Gutter

Total Impact

20-50

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

11-15

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

46-60

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

NA


 

 

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

No

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

Unknown

Is there damage to skylights, EIFS, window screens / fencing?

 

 

Yes

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

Yes

Is there known roof leakage following this hailstorm?

Yes

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components of Mechanical Units

6-10

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components of Heater Flues

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components of Exhaust Vents

 

Impacts per square foot on other Metal Components (Vehicles)

 

Overall Damage

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture, Puncture, Dent (Metal Roofing)

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture

Comments Regarding Inspection

A roofer temporarily repaired the majority of large punctures.


 

 

 

Low Slope Site 1.19 Photographs

 

1.19-1. Close-up of impact ~ 3- inches.

1.19-2. Close-up of impact ~ 4 to 5- inches.

1.19-3. Close-up of impact ~ 4 to 5- inches.

1.19-4. Close-up of impact on coping edge ~ 3-inches.

1.19-5. Close-up of impact on coping edge ~ 3-inches.

1.19-6. Overview of impact area


 

 

 

 

Low Slope Inspection Site 1.20

 

Facility Name

School

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

1.20

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.511748

Site Longitude

-96.59371

Area Size (Square feet)

15,400

Approximate Age (Years)

>10 yrs.

General Condition

Poor

Slope

1/2:12

Roof Type

Coated Modified Bitumen

Method of Attachment

Unknown

Membrane Type

Coating over Modified Bitumen

Seam Types & Spacing

Adhered

Stone Ballasted

No

Cover Board

Unknown

Cover Board Thickness

Unknown

Top Insulation Type

Unknown

Top Insulation Thickness

Unknown

Bottom Insulation Type

Unknown

Bottom Insulation Thickness

Unknown

Deck Type

Steel

Type of Drainage

 

Total Impact

>20

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

>25

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

3”

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Overall Damage

5


 

 

Low Slope Site 1.20 Photographs

 

01.20-1. Overview of impact repairs on coated membrane with damage.

01.20-2. Overview of impact repairs on coated membrane with damage.

01.20-3. Close view of impact damage ~ 1.5-inch.

01-20.4. Close view of impact damage ~ 3 to 3.5-inch.

 

 


 

 

01.20-5. Close view of impact damage.

01-20.6. Hail bruising marks on roof top unit.


 

 

Low Slope Inspection Site 1.26

 

Facility Name

Store

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

1.26

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.511748

Site Longitude

-96.59371

Area Size (Square feet)

56,000

Approximate Age (Years)

3-6 yrs.

General Condition

Excellent

Slope

1/4:12

Roof Type

Single Ply

Method of Attachment

Mechanically Fastened

Membrane Type

TPO

Seam Types & Spacing

Welded

Stone Ballasted

No

Cover Board

High Density Gypsum

Cover Board Thickness

.25 in

Top Insulation Type

NA

Top Insulation Thickness

NA

Bottom Insulation Type

Polyisocyanurate

Bottom Insulation Thickness

1.5 in

Deck Type

Steel

Type of Drainage

 

Total Impact

20-50

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

 

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

2”


 

 

Low Slope Site 1.26 Photographs

 

 

 

 

01.26-1. Close view of impact marks on TPO membrane with no damage.

01.26-2. Close view of impact damage in coping ~ 1-inch.

01.26-3. Close view of impact damage in vent cover ~ 1.5-inch.

01-26.4. Hail-caused dents to RTU fins.


 

 

Team 03 Data Reportsand Photographs Low Slope

Low Slope InspectionSite 3.08

 

Facility Name

Fire Station

 

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

3.08

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.865583

Site Longitude

-96.989518

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

12-15

General Condition

Fair

Slope

1/4:12

Roof Type

Modified Bitumen

Method of Attachment

Torched

Membrane Type

 

Seams

Adhered

Stone Ballasted

No

Coverboard

Unknown

Coverboard Thickness

 

Top Insulation

Unknown

Top Insulation Thickness

 

Bottom Insulation

Unknown

Bottom Insulation Thickness

 

Deck Type

 

Type of Drainage

Eave Drainage

Total Impact

20-50

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

 

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

2.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

16-30

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

No


 

 

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

Yes

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

Unknown

 

Is there damage or hail hits to skylights, EIFS, window screens/ fencing?

 

Yes

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No.

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Mechanical Units)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Heater Flues)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Exhaust Vents)

15-20

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Vehicles)

 

Overall Damage

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture, Puncture, Surface Pitting (BUR-Modified Bitumen), Spalling of Surface Coating

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture, Puncture, Surface Pitting, Spalling of Surface Coating

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

Low Slope Site 3.08 Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Low Slope Inspection Site 3.08B

 

 

Facility Name

Fire Station

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

03.08B

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.859333

Site Longitude

-96.987167

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

9-12

General Condition

Good

Slope

1/4:12

Roof Type

Built up Roof (BUR)

Method of Attachment

Unknown

Membrane Type

 

Seams

 

Stone Ballasted

Yes

Coverboard

Unknown

Coverboard Thickness

 

Top Insulation

Unknown

Top Insulation Thickness

 

Bottom Insulation

Unknown

Bottom Insulation Thickness

 

Deck Type

 

Type of Drainage

 

Total Impact

20-50

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

2.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

No


 

 

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

Yes

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

Unknown

Is there damage or hail hits to skylights, EIFS, window screens/ fencing?

Yes

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No.

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Mechanical Units)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Heater Flues)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Exhaust Vents)

15-20

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Vehicles)

 

Overall Damage

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Spalling of Surface Coating

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Spalling of Surface Coating

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low Slope Site 3.08b Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

Low Slope Inspection Site 3.09

 

Facility Name

City-owned building

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

3.09

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.862067

Site Longitude

-97.01915

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

<3

General Condition

Excellent

Slope

1/4:12

Roof Type

Modified Bitumen

Method of Attachment

Torched

Membrane Type

 

Seams

Adhered

Stone Ballasted

No

Coverboard

Unknown

Coverboard Thickness

 

Top Insulation

Unknown

Top Insulation Thickness

 

Bottom Insulation

Unknown

Bottom Insulation Thickness

 

Deck Type

 

Type of Drainage

Scuppers

Total Impact

 

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

4

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

76-90

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

No


 

 

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

Yes

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

Unknown

Is there damage or hail hits to skylights, EIFS, window screens/ fencing?

No

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No.

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Mechanical Units)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Heater Flues)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Exhaust Vents)

15-20

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Vehicles)

 

Overall Damage

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture, Puncture, Spalling of Surface Coating

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture, Puncture, Spalling of Surface Coating

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low Slope Site 3.09 Photographs

 

 

 

 

3.09-1. Hail impact dents in metal flashing on top of parapet wall.

3.09-2. Dents in standing seam metal roof from hail impact.

30.9-3. Large dent in exhaust fan from hail impact.

3.09-4. Typical hail impact damage to roof.


 

 

 

Low Slope Inspection Site 3.10

 

 

Facility Name

Fire Station

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

3.10

Zip

75063

Site Latitude

32.917367

Site Longitude

-97.002967

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

3-6

General Condition

Good

Slope

1/4:12

Roof Type

Built up Roof (BUR)

Method of Attachment

Unknown

Membrane Type

 

Seams

 

Stone Ballasted

No

Coverboard

Unknown

Coverboard Thickness

 

Top Insulation

 

Top Insulation Thickness

 

Bottom Insulation

Unknown

Bottom Insulation Thickness

 

Deck Type

 

Type of Drainage

Eave Drainage

Total Impact

20-50

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

1.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

76-90

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

No


 

 

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

Yes

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

Unknown

Is there damage or hail hits to skylights, EIFS, window screens/ fencing?

Yes

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No.

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Mechanical Units)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Heater Flues)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Exhaust Vents)

15-20

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Vehicles)

 

Overall Damage

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Spalling of Surface Coating

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Spalling of Surface Coating

Comments Regarding Inspection

No visible damage to BUR w/ gravel. Unknown if damage below. Overall damage assessment of 2 base in visible assessment.


 

 

 

 

Low Slope Site 3.10 Photographs

 

 

3.10-1. Typical hail impact damage to exhaust vent.

3.10-2. Sample of broken skylight due to hail impact.

3.10-3. Damaged skylight and no visible damage to BUR.

3.10-4. Typical hail impact damage to parapet cap flashing.


 

 

Low Slope Inspection Site 3.12

 

Facility Name

Community Building

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

3.12

Zip

75062

Site Latitude

32.85015

Site Longitude

-96.9603

Area Size (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

 

General Condition

Good

Slope

1/8:12

Roof Type

Single Ply

Method of Attachment

Fully Adhered

Membrane Type

 

Seams

Adhered

Stone Ballasted

No

Coverboard

Unknown

Coverboard Thickness

 

Top Insulation

Unknown

Top Insulation Thickness

 

Bottom Insulation

Unknown

Bottom Insulation Thickness

 

Deck Type

 

Type of Drainage

Roof Drains

Total Impact

20-50

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

Yes

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

Yes


 

 

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

Unknown

Is there damage or hail hits to skylights, EIFS, window screens/ fencing?

Unknown

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No.

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Mechanical Units)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Heater Flues)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Exhaust Vents)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Vehicles)

 

Overall Damage

3

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low Slope Site 3.12 Photographs

 

 

 

 

3.12-1. Large hail dent in vent stack.

3.12-2. Large number of big hail strikes to single ply roof covering at this location.

 

3.12-3. Typical large hail strike to single ply roof covering. Would need core sampling to determine underlying damage at this site.


 

 

Team 04 Data Reports and Photographs Low Slope

 

Low Slope InspectionSite 4.02

 

Facility Name

Shopping Center

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

4.02

Zip

75063

Site Latitude

32.905667

Site Longitude

-96.956333

Area Size   (Square feet)

 

Approximate Age (Years)

9-12

General Condition

Good

Slope

1/4:12

Roof Type

Built up Roof (BUR)

Method of Attachment

Mechanically Fastened

Membrane Type

 

Seam Types & Spacing

 

Stone Ballasted

 

Cover Board

Unknown

Cover Board Thickness

 

Top Insulation Type

Unknown

Top Insulation Thickness

 

Bottom Insulation Type

Unknown

Bottom Insulation Thickness

 

Deck Type

Steel

Type of Drainage

Perimeter Gutter

Total Impact

0

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

2.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

46-60

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

No


 

 

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

Yes

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

Yes

Is there damage to skylights, EIFS, window screens/fencing?

Yes

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

No

Is there known roof leakage following this hailstorm?

No.

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components of Mechanical Units

6-10

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components of Heater Flues

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components of Exhaust Vents

0-5

Impacts per square foot on other Metal Components (Vehicles)

 

Overall Damage

1

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Minor granule loss

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Granule Loss

Comments Regarding Inspection

No observable damage on aggregate (pea gravel) surfaced roof. Building had EIFS parapets which were punctured. Dents and impact marks on all of the exposed metal and heat exchanger coils. Only minor loss of granules on base flashings.


 

 

Low Slope Site 4.02 Photographs

 

 

4.02-1. The dark spots on top of this sheet metal cap are spatter marks from hail strikes. The larger ones appear to be from hailstones of 1”–1.25” diameter.

4.02-2. At the SW and NW corners of this roof are square enclosures lined with walls, and the walls are topped with exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS).

4.02-3. This is a close-up of two holes in the EIFS consistent with hail strikes.

4.02-4. This indentation in an exhaust cover is approximately the size of an egg.


 

 

4.02-5. Several indentations (encircled in white) were noted on this exhaust cover.

4.02-6. Close examination of this base flashing showed bare spots where mineral granules were knocked loose.

 

4.02-7. Cooling fins on both of these HVAC units show widespread damage from hail strikes.


 

 

 

 

 

Low Slope Inspection Site 4.03

 

Facility Name

Office Building

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

4.03

Zip

75063

Site Latitude

32.9075

Site Longitude

-97.003

Area Size (Square feet)

28,440 sq ft

Approximate Age (Years)

>15

General Condition

Poor

Slope

1/4:12

Roof Type

Built up Roof (BUR)

Method of Attachment

Hot Mopped

Membrane Type

 

Seams

 

Stone Ballasted

 

Coverboard

Unknown

Coverboard Thickness

 

Top Insulation

Unknown

Top Insulation Thickness

 

Bottom Insulation

Unknown

Bottom Insulation Thickness

 

Deck Type

Steel

Type of Drainage

Internal Roof Drains

Total Impact

0

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

2.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

46-60

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

NA


 

 

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

Yes

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

 

Is there damage or hail hits to skylights, EIFS, window screens/ fencing?

Yes

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

No

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No.

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Mechanical Units)

15-20

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Heater Flues)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Exhaust Vents)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Vehicles)

 

Overall Damage

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture, Puncture, Spalling of Surface Coating

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture, Puncture, Spalling of Surface Coating

Comments Regarding Inspection

 


 

 

 

 

 

Low Slope Site 4.03 Photographs

 

 

4.03-1. White tape was used as a temporary fix for several skylights that were broken by hail strikes.

4.03-2. The old, weathered felts on this wall were especially vulnerable to damage from hail strikes

4.03-3. Sheet metal exhaust units provide conspicuous evidence of hail strikes.

4.03-4. This is a close-up view of racked felts on a parapet with evidence of hail strikes.


 

 

4.03-5. Encircled on the wall/base flashings of this parapet are numerous hail strike locations.

4.03-6. This is a close-up of some hail strikes on wall/base flashings on a parapet.

 

4.03-7. These are actual hailstones preserved following the hailstorm.


 

 

Low Slope Investigation Site 4.06

 

 

 

 

Facility Name

Office Building

 

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

4.06

Zip

75038

Site Latitude

32.870119

Site Longitude

-96.985807

Area Size (Square feet)

6,000 sq ft

Approximate Age (Years)

6-12

General Condition

Good

Slope

1/2:12

Roof Type

Modified Bitumen

Method of Attachment

Unknown

Membrane Type

 

Seams

 

Stone Ballasted

 

Coverboard

Perlite

Coverboard Thickness

 

Top Insulation

Unknown

Top Insulation Thickness

 

Bottom Insulation

Unknown

Bottom Insulation Thickness

 

Deck Type

 

Type of Drainage

Scuppers

Total Impact

20-50

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

>20

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

2.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

76-90

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

NA


 

 

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

No

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

Yes

Is there damage or hail hits to skylights, EIFS, window screens/ fencing?

Yes

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

Yes

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No.

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Mechanical Units)

6-10

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Heater Flues)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Exhaust Vents)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Vehicles)

 

Overall Damage

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Fracture/Rupture, Spalling of Surface Coating, Substantial Loss of Surfacing

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Spalling of Surface Coating, Substantial loss of Surfacing

Comments Regarding Inspection

Widespread damage throught the entire roof. Splatter marks on metal coping.


 

 

 

 

 

Low Slope Site 4.06 Photographs

 

 

 

 

 

4.06-1. Puncture marks on the EIFS wall.

4.06-2. Close-up picture of the punctured EIFS wall surface.

4.06-3. Spatter marks on the top surface of the AC unit.

4.06-4. Indentation on the heat exchanger fins on roof mounted AC unit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

4.06-5. Punctured/Fractured base flashing on the roof.

4.06-6. Displaced granules on the surface of the mod. bit roof.

4.06-7. Several spatter marks on the top surface of the AC unit.

4.06-8. Hail impact marks on the surface of the mod. Bit. Roof.

 

4.06-9. Puncture marks on the EIFS surface.


 

 

 

 

 

Low Slope Investigation Site 4.08

 

 

 

Facility Name

Commercial Building

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

4.08

Zip

72580

Site Longitude

-96.974185

Area Size (Square feet)

33,971 sq ft

Approximate Age (Years)

3-6

General Condition

Good

Slope

1/2:12

Roof Type

Built up Roof (BUR)

Method of Attachment

Mechanically Fastened

Membrane Type

 

Seams

 

Stone Ballasted

 

Coverboard

None

Coverboard Thickness

 

Top Insulation

Polyisocyanurate

Top Insulation Thickness

1.5 in

Bottom Insulation

Polyisocyanurate

Bottom Insulation Thickness

 

Deck Type

 

Type of Drainage

Scuppers

Total Impact

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

1-5

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

2.25

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

61-75

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

No


 

 

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

 

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

 

Is there damage or hail hits to skylights, EIFS, window screens/ fencing?

Unknown

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Mechanical Units)

6-10

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Heater Flues)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Exhaust Vents)

 

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Vehicles)

 

Overall Damage

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Loss of aluminum colored coating from smooth BUR

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Loss of aluminum colored coating from smooth BUR

Comments Regarding Inspection

Hail damage primarily includes stripping of aluminum colored coating.


 

 

 

 

Low Slope Site 4.08 Photographs

 

 

 

 

4.08-1. Spatter marks on the metal coping.

4.08-2. Spatter marks on the AC Unit.

4.08-3. Spatter mark on the wall flashing.

4.08-4. Spatter marks on the side panel of AC unit.


 

 

4.08-5. Chipped aluminum colored coating over smooth BUR.

4.08-6. Indentations on the heat exchanger fins on roof mounted AC unit.


 

 

Low Slope Investigation Site 4.09

 

Facility Name

Church

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

4.09

Zip

75165

Site Latitude

32.386333

Site Longitude

-96.841667

Area Size (Square feet)

9,750 sq ft

Approximate Age (Years)

>15

General Condition

Good

Slope

1/4:12

Roof Type

Built up Roof (BUR)

Method of Attachment

Hot Mopped

Membrane Type

 

Seams

 

Stone Ballasted

Yes

Coverboard

Perlite

Coverboard Thickness

1.5 in

Top Insulation

None

Top Insulation Thickness

 

Bottom Insulation

None

Bottom Insulation Thickness

 

Deck Type

Steel

Type of Drainage

Internal Roof Drains

Total Impact

0

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

3.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

46-60

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

NA

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

Yes


 

 

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

Yes

Is there damage or hail hits to skylights, EIFS, window screens/ fencing?

No

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No.

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Mechanical Units)

0-5

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Heater Flues)

0-5

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Exhaust Vents)

0-5

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Vehicles)

NA

Overall Damage

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

 

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

 

Comments Regarding Inspection

Damage included dents in roof mounted AC unit, heat exchanger fins, and exhaust vents. Chips were noted in aluminum paint on the modified bitumen edge and base flashing. Since gravel is well embedded in asphalt, the roof showed no evidence of splash marks (“craters”) from hail impact or other damage, based on visual inspection and a test cut. Damage was observed on soft metals and modified bitumen base and edge flashing.


 

 

 

Low Slope Site 4.09 Photographs

 

 

4.09-1. This exhaust unit was hit by numerous hailstones of moderate to large size.

4.09-2. Chipped aluminized coating on the base/wall flashing.

4.09-3. Chipped aluminized coating on the base/wall flashing.

4.09-4. Multiple indentations on the heat exchanger fins on roof mounted AC unit.


 

 

4.09-5. Multiple indentations on the heat exchanger fins on roof mounted AC unit.

4.09-6. Large size indentation on the metal exhaust unit.


 

 

 

Low Slope Investigation Site 4.10

 

 

Facility Name

Church

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

4.10

Zip

75165

Site Latitude

32.388484

Site Longitude

-96.847775

Area Size (Square feet)

2,740 sq ft

Approximate Age (Years)

>15

General Condition

Good

Slope

1/4:12

Roof Type

Built up Roof (BUR)

Method of Attachment

Hot Mopped

Membrane Type

 

Seams

 

Stone Ballasted

Yes

Coverboard

None

Coverboard Thickness

 

Top Insulation

None

Top Insulation Thickness

 

Bottom Insulation

None

Bottom Insulation Thickness

 

Deck Type

Structural Concrete

Type of Drainage

Scuppers

Total Impact

1-5

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

0

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

3.5

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

46-60

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

NA


 

 

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

Yes

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

Yes

Is there damage or hail hits to skylights, EIFS, window screens/ fencing?

No

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

Unknown

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

No.

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Mechanical Units)

NA

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Heater Flues)

NA

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Exhaust Vents)

0-5

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Vehicles)

NA

Overall Damage

2

Types of Hail Damage Observed

 

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Denting of roof mounted exhaust vents and base flashing

Comments Regarding Inspection

Surface gravel showed large splash marks measuring approximately 4 inches in diameter. A test cut showed no damage to roof assembly or deck.


 

 

 

 

 

Low Slope Site 4.10 Photographs

 

 

4.10-1. Large size indentation on the metal exhaust unit.

4.10-2. Indentation on the heat exchanger fins on roof mounted AC unit.

4.10-3. Close-up splash mark in the loose gravel of this BUR caused by large hail.

4.10-4. Multiple splash marks visible in the loose gravel of this BUR were caused by large hail.


 

 

4.10-5. Indentation on the metal door apparently caused by a large hailstone.

4.10-6. Chipped aluminized coating on the base flashing.


 

 

Team 07 Data Reportsand Photographs Low Slope

 

Low Slope InspectionSite 7.03

Facility Name

Commercial building

Building Name

 

Inspection Number

7.03

Zip

75115

Site Latitude

32.622389

Site Longitude

-96.851882

Area Size (Square feet)

10,400 sq ft

Approximate Age (Years)

3-6

General Condition

Poor

Slope

 

Roof Type

Single Ply

Method of Attachment

Fully Adhered

Membrane Type

TPO – Thermoplastic – Modified Bitumen

Seams

Welded

Stone Ballasted

No

Coverboard

None

Coverboard Thickness

 

Top Insulation

Polyisocyanurate

Top Insulation Thickness

3.5 in

Bottom Insulation

 

Bottom Insulation Thickness

 

Deck Type

 

Type of Drainage

Perimeter Gutter

Total Impact

6-10

Damage Areas Identified per 100 square feet

6-10

Apparent Maximum Hail Size

1.75

Apparent Angle of Impact (Degrees)

 

Are there direct hits on mechanical fasteners or other cutting edges on roof membranes?

No


 

 

Is there damage to vertical flashings?

No

Have multiple hail events occurred at this location since this roof was installed?

Yes

Is there damage or hail hits to skylights, EIFS, window screens/ fencing?

No

Is the roof scheduled for replacement

Yes - replaced

Is there known roof leakage from this hailstorm?

Yes

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Mechanical Units)

15-20

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Heater Flues)

NA

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Exhaust Vents)

NA

Impacts per square foot on Metal Components (Vehicles)

NA

Overall Damage

5

Types of Hail Damage Observed

Puncture, Surface Pitting

Predominate Type of Hail Damage Observed

Puncture

Comments Regarding Inspection

Roofing had three different membranes installed at different times. The thermoplastic section was over 10 years old and was most seriously damaged.


 

 

Low Slope Site 7.03 Photographs

 

7.03-1. Damaged rooftop unit impacted by hail sideways.

7.03-2. Pockmarks on parapet.

7.03-3. Repaired punctures on flat roof.

7.03-4. TPO and PVC on same roof.

 

7.03-5. Two types of flat roof sections.


 

 

APPENDIX D:   HailTrax Map

 


 

 


 

 

 

 


 

 


 

 

 

 


 

 


 

 


 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 


 

 

APPENDIX E:

StormEvent Data Reports for Dallas County

Courtesy of the National Climatic Data Center

 

May 24, 2011

 

 

10 HAIL event(s) were reported in Dallas County, Texas

between 05/24/2011 and 05/24/2011 .

Mag :

Dth : Inj : PrD : CrD :

Magnitude

Deaths Injuries

Property Damage Crop Damage

 

Texas

Location or County

Date

Time

Type

Mag

Dth

Inj

PrD

CrD

1 Coppell

05/24/2011

19:14 PM

Hail

1.00 in.

0

0

0K

0K

2 Irving

05/24/2011

19:17 PM

Hail

4.25 in.

0

0

300K

0K

3 (dfw)Dallas-Ft Worth

05/24/2011

19:20 PM

Hail

2.00 in.

0

0

20K

0K

4 Gribble

05/24/2011

19:20 PM

Hail

1.75 in.

0

0

20K

0K

5 Coppell

05/24/2011

19:25 PM

Hail

1.75 in.

0

0

30K

0K

6 Union Bower

05/24/2011

19:28 PM

Hail

1.75 in.

0

0

150K

0K

7 Farmers Branch

05/24/2011

19:30 PM

Hail

1.75 in.

0

0

30K

0K

8 University Park

05/24/2011

19:49 PM

Hail

2.75 in.

0

0

300K

0K

9 Dallas

05/24/2011

20:15 PM

Hail

1.50 in.

0

0

8K

0K

10 East Dallas

05/24/2011

20:25 PM

Hail

1.00 in.

0

0

0K

0K

TOTALS:

0

0

858K

0

 


 

 

Event Record Details

Courtesy of theNational Climatic Data Center DallasCounty, Texas

Irving Texas May 24, 2011

 

 

        

 

EVENT NARRATIVE: Hail up to the sizeof grapefruits was reported around Irving forseveral minutes. Windows were broken or smashed out by the hail. The hail also damaged the TPC Four Seasons LasColinas Country Club and golf course where thePGA's Byron Nelson Golf Championship was being held. Crews had to repair over 4,000 divots on the golf course beforeplay could resume the next day. The greens of seven holes were significantly damaged. The hail at the golf course wasreported to be up to baseball size.

 

EPISODE NARRATIVE: Three rounds ofthunderstorms affected north Texas with 10tornadoes confirmed. The atmosphere was highly unstable on this day and a High Risk was issued by the Storm PredictionCenter for the northwestern counties of north Texas while a Moderate Risk covered much of the rest of north Texas. Astrong upper level disturbanceapproaching from the west interacted with a dryline across the western portions of north Texas, and thefirst round of storms began to develop around 3:30 pm in the western counties. The first two rounds of stormsremained along and north ofInterstate 20 but the third round of storms later that night moved through mostof the region as a line of storms.The most significant tornado occurred in the western limits of the city of Denton where EF-2 damageoccurred. An EF-1 tornado also occurred in thecity of Irving in Dallas County, and softball sized hail fell in the northernportions of the Metroplex. In thecity of Dallas, one person died from electrocution after going outside around live, downed wires after astorm had passed.

Note:   Additional Event Record Details available at: http://www:ncdc.noaa.gov


 

 

APPENDIX F:

 

StormEvent Data Reports for Tarrant County

Courtesyof the National Climatic Data Center

 

May 24, 2011

 

32 HAIL event(s) were reported in Tarrant County, Texas

on 05 /24/2011.

Mag :

Dth : Inj : PrD : CrD :

Magnitude

Deaths Injuries

Property Damage Crop Damage

 

Texas

Location or County

Date

Time

Type

Mag

Dth

Inj

PrD

CrD

1 Eagle Mtn Lake

05/24/2011

17:05 PM

Hail

0.75 in.

0

0

0K

0K

2 Haslet

05/24/2011

17:22 PM

Hail

0.75 in.

0

0

0K

0K

3 Keller

05/24/2011

17:27 PM

Hail

0.75 in.

0

0

0K

0K

4 Haslet

05/24/2011

18:30 PM

Hail

2.00 in.

0

0

12K

0K

5 Azle

05/24/2011

18:39 PM

Hail

1.00 in.

0

0

0K

0K

6 Avondale

05/24/2011

18:40 PM

Hail

4.50 in.

0

0

75K

0K

7 Euless

05/24/2011

18:45 PM

Hail

0.75 in.

0

0

0K

0K

8 Avondale

05/24/2011

18:50 PM

Hail

4.50 in.

0

0

75K

0K

9 Keller Alta Vista Ar

05/24/2011

18:50 PM

Hail

1.75 in.

0

0

50K

0K

10 Keller

05/24/2011

18:55 PM

Hail

0.88 in.

0

0

0K

0K

11 Keller

05/24/2011

18:55 PM

Hail

2.50 in.

0

0

25K

0K

12 Keller

05/24/2011

18:55 PM

Hail

2.75 in.

0

0

25K

0K

13 Keller

05/24/2011

18:56 PM

Hail

4.25 in.

0

0

300K

0K

14 Smithfield

05/24/2011

18:58 PM

Hail

1.75 in.

0

0

12K

0K

15 Ft Worth Mangham Arp

05/24/2011

19:00 PM

Hail

1.25 in.

0

0

5K

0K

16 Keller

05/24/2011

19:00 PM

Hail

2.50 in.

0

0

50K

0K

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

Location or County

Date

Time

Type

Mag

Dth

Inj

PrD

CrD

17 Grapevine

05/24/2011

19:02 PM

Hail

1.75 in.

0

0

320K

0K

18 Euless

05/24/2011

19:10 PM

Hail

1.50 in.

0

0

5K

0K

19 Bedford

05/24/2011

19:13 PM

Hail

1.75 in.

0

0

30K

0K

20 White Settlement

05/24/2011

19:19 PM

Hail

1.75 in.

0

0

30K

0K

21 Benbrook

05/24/2011

19:35 PM

Hail

0.75 in.

0

0

0K

0K

22 Mara

05/24/2011

19:50 PM

Hail

0.75 in.

0

0

0K

0K

23 Ft Worth

05/24/2011

19:55 PM

Hail

2.75 in.

0

0

300K

0K

24 Ft Worth

05/24/2011

19:57 PM

Hail

1.75 in.

0

0

60K

0K

25 Johnsons Station

05/24/2011

20:02 PM

Hail

2.75 in.

0

0

200K

0K

26 Poltechniec

05/24/2011

20:02 PM

Hail

1.75 in.

0

0

40K

0K

27 Euless

05/24/2011

20:15 PM

Hail

1.75 in.

0

0

40K

0K

28 Arlington

05/24/2011

20:19 PM

Hail

1.75 in.

0

0

60K

0K

29 Euless

05/24/2011

20:20 PM

Hail

1.00 in.

0

0

0K

0K

30 Center Pt

05/24/2011

20:42 PM

Hail

1.00 in.

0

0

0K

0K

31 Avondale

05/24/2011

20:45 PM

Hail

1.75 in.

0

0

5K

0K

32 Euless

05/24/2011

21:20 PM

Hail

1.00 in.

0

0

0K

0K

TOTALS:

0

0

1.719M

0

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Event Record Details

Courtesy of theNational Climatic Data CenterTarrant County, Texas

Keller TexasMay 24, 2011

 

        

 

EVENT NARRATIVE : Softball sized hailwas reported on the northwest side of Keller .

 

EPISODE NARRATIVE: Three rounds ofthunderstorms affected north Texas with 10tornadoes confirmed. The atmosphere was highly unstable on this day and a High Risk was issued by the Storm PredictionCenter for the northwestern counties of north Texas while a Moderate Risk covered much of the rest of north Texas. Astrong upper level disturbanceapproaching from the west interacted with a dryline across the western portions of north Texas, and thefirst round of storms began to develop around 3:30 pm in the western counties. The first two rounds of stormsremained along and north of Interstate20 but the third round of storms later that night moved through most of the region as a line of storms. The mostsignificant tornado occurred in the western limits of the city of Denton where EF-2 damage occurred. An EF-1tornado also occurred in the city ofIrving in Dallas County, and softball sized hail fell in the northern portionsof the Metroplex. In the city ofDallas, one person died from electrocution after going outside around live, downed wires after a storm had passed.

 

Note:   Additional Event Record Details available at: http://www:ncdc.noaa.gov


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX G:   2011 RICOWI HailInvestigation Team Members

 

 

From left to right:

 

Front row: Dale McLean, Wanda Edwards, Phil Dregger,Robert White, Dave Fulton, Tanya Brown, Lynne Lawry, David Roodvoets

 

Middlerow: John Paul Hadden, William Woodring, David Balistreri

 

Back Row: Remington Brown, Phil Mayfield, Shiraj Khan,Apoorv Dabral, Rusty Beck, Chuck Miccolis, John Gimple, Bill Morgan, Dan Behrens

 

Absentfrom the Photo:

Lynne Christensen, Peter Parmenter, Bert Nunez, DougDewey, and Richard Herzog


 

 

 

 

 

 

2011 RICOWI Hail Team Members

Team 1

RustyBeck, Liberty Mutual Insurance Co. Phil Dregger, Technical Roof Services, Inc. JohnGoveia, Technical Roof Services, Inc. Robert White, Malarkey Roofing Products

 

Team 2

Dan Behrens, Haag Engineering

WandaEdwards, Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety (IBHS) BillMorgan, Malarkey Roofing Products

 

Team 3

RemBrown, Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety (IBHS) DaveFulton, Metal Building Manufacturers Association (MBMA) John PaulHadden, State Farm Insurance Co.

DaleMcLean, Revere Copper Products, Inc.

 

Team 4

ApoorvDabral, AIR Worldwide Phil Mayfield, PSM Consultants

ChuckMiccolis, Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety (IBHS)

 

Team 5

DavidBalistreri, Building Envelope Consultants, Ltd

TanyaBrown, Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety (IBHS) BillWoodring, GAF

 

Team 6

DougDewey, State Farm Insurance Co. John Gimple, Gimple Roof Engineers, Inc. ShirajKhan, AIR Worldwide

LynneLawry, Weather Decision Technologies, Inc. (WDT)

 

Team 7

Lynne Christensen, Cedar Shake & Shingle Bureau (CSSB) BertNunez, Benco Commercial Roofing

Peter Parmenter, Photographer, Cedar Shake & ShingleBureau (CSSB) Tim Veigel, Benco Commercial Roofing

 

 

 

Report Task Group:

 

RichardHerzog, Chair, Hail Investigation Program, Haag Engineering Co. DavidRoodvoets, On-Site Coordinator, DLR Consultants

Lynne Lawry, Weather Decision Technologies,Inc. (WDT)


 

 

 

APPENDIX H: Acknowledgements

 

RICOWI wishes to thank severalorganizations, corporations, and individuals for making the hail investigations possible. Primarily,RICOWI thanks the Sponsor Members of RICOWI whoprovided much of the funding for the project and who provided volunteers to theHIP committees and the field investigation: ARMA, CSSB, IBHS, ERA, MBMA, MCA, RCI, SPFA, and SPRI.Thanks to State Farm Insurance for providing additional project funding through a research grant.Additionally, the following Affiliate Members contributed to the HIP project:Haag Engineering Co., ARMKO Industries, Crenshaw Consulting Group, EagleRoofing, GAF Building Materials,Liberty Mutual Insurance, Malarkey Roofing Products, Performance Roof Systems, and Roof Maintenance Systems.

 

Aerialogics provided diagrams, slope,and area data for several projects from aerialphotography. This information was confirmed as accurate by on siteobservations. Slope was confirmed within +- 1/12 on steep slope roofs. There was no effort to determine accuracy of slopes on roofs with slopes less than 2/12. Area measurements were confirmed by fieldobservations. This tool can provide considerable information about a roof   prior to   inspection and provide roof areaswithout having to measure steep or complex roofs. Aerialogics data was most helpful in completing information on roofs that were difficult to reach or measure during ground observation.

 

Thank you to the HIP team members(Appendix E) for their hard work, dedication, and numerous volunteer hours. Thanks to RICOWI Executive Director JoanCook for excellent leadership, organization, and support, and to David Roodvoets of DLR Consultants, our HIPSite Coordinator. Thanks to Hail Committee Chair and report co-author, RichardHerzog, Haag Engineering and to the following report writers: John Goveia, Bill Morgan, Rem Brown, Chuck Miccolis, David Balistreri, Lynne Lawry, and Lynne Christensen. RICOWI would like to thank peer reviewers Richard Fricklas andJerry Teitsma for their time and attention to detail.

 

The following companies or entitieshad employees volunteer homes and buildings forinspection: Haag Engineering, State Farm Insurance, Allstate Insurance, andFEMA. Thanks to the City of Irvingand the following staff: Gary Miller, Director of Planning & Inspection Department; Pat Lamers, PE,Facility Manager, Capital Improvement Program; and Jeff Young, Facilities Maintenance Supervisor. Thanks to FEMA, theOffices of Emergency Management inDallas County and Tarrant County for their assistance with providing access to sites

 

RICOWI would also like to thank theIrving Independent School District and Kelly Horn Facilities Director for providing access to several buildings for inspection. Thanks to Lynne Lawry of Nimbus WeatherTechnologies / Weather Decision Technologies, Inc. for meteorological information and assistance. Thanks to the FortWorth Star Telegram, KXAS-TV Channel 5, andthe Dallas Morning News for providing media coverage for the investigation.

 

The Hilton Double Tree Hotel in IrvingTX provided comfortable accommodations and excellentservice serving as the HIP investigation headquarters.

 

Thank you to the people of North Texasfor your kindness, hospitality, and willingness to share your experiences with RICOWI.